The German soldier in
the wars of the United
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WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
J. G. ROSEN GARTEN.
J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY.
Copyright, 1886, by J. G. ROSENGARTEN.
ADOLPH G. ROSENGARTEN,
Major isth Pennsylvania (Anderson) Cavalry,
BORN IN PHILADELPHIA, DECEMBER 29, 1838; KILLED IN HATTLE AT STONE
RIVER, TENNESSEE, DECEMBER 29, 1862.
THE substance of the following pages was read
before the Pionier Verein at the hall of the German
Society, in Philadelphia, April 21, 1885. It was
printed with some changes in the United Service
Magazine of New York, in the numbers for June,
July, and August, 1885, and it was translated and
printed in German in full in the Nebraska Tribune,
in successive issues, between June 2Oth and October
27, 1885, the last number being a supplementary
article by the translator, Fr. Schnake, on the German
Soldiers of the Border States. It was subsequently
published in a pamphlet of forty-nine pages by J.
B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, for the Pionier
Verein. That edition is exhausted, and in reply
to numerous applications, showing interest in the
subject, it is now reprinted with many corrections
6 PREFATORY NOTE.
and considerable additions. For these the author
is indebted most of all to the Deutsche Pionier of
Cincinnati and to the editor, H. A. Ratterman, the
best authority on all subjects concerning the Germans
of the United States, and among others to Mr. F.
Melchers, of the Deutsche Zeitung, Charleston, South
Carolina; Mr. Herman Dieck, of the German Demo-
krat, Philadelphia; General Lewis Merrill, U.S.A.;
Colonel John P. Nicholson, Dr. J. de B. W. Gardiner,
U.S.A.; Prof. O. Seidensticker, of the University of
Pennsylvania, and Mr. George M. Abbot, of the
Philadelphia Library, his " Bibliography of the Civil
War in the United States" is indispensable for a
student of our military history. Whatever there is of
merit or interest in these pages is largely due to the
assistance thus liberally given. With further aid in
the way either of corrections or additions, which
will be gladly received and gratefully acknowledged,
the author of this sketch hopes that he may here-
after be enabled to make it better worth the interest
of the reader and the importance of the subject.
J. G. R.
PHILADELPHIA, April 21, 1886,
532 WALNUT STREET.
THE GERMAN SOLDIER
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
THE share of the Germans in the wars of the
United States is by no means limited to that of the
Rebellion. From the very outset of their settlement
in the country they always stood ready to take their
place in its defence. On the borders of what was
then the West, the early German immigrants were
steady in their support of the British flag against
their hereditary enemies, the French. This was
natural enough, for many of the Germans who first
came to this country did so in order to seek refuge
from the French invaders, who rode rough-shod
over their humble homes in the districts of Ger-
many devastated by French soldiers. Even among
8 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
those who came here to find a new home in which
they could worship God in their own way, while
they sympathized with the Quakers in their doctrine
of not bearing arms voluntarily, the German blood
did not easily accommodate itself to the doctrine
of non-resistance, and when they could not make
friends of the Indians by peaceful means, the German
settlers did not hesitate to take up arms in defence
of their homes. The Germans of Pennsylvania and
New York responded freely to the summons to de-
fend their new country against the French and their
allies, the Indians. They gave freely of their men
and their means to the cause of liberty in the war
of the Revolution. They took a full share in the
war of 1812, and in the Mexican war. Finally,
wherever the Germans were strongest in number,
they were represented in even more than propor-
tionate strength in the forces raised for the defence
of the Union. From New York and Pennsylvania
they went forth in great strength in regiments and
individually. They saved Missouri to the Union,
and Ohio and Illinois and Indiana and Wisconsin
and Kansas may well point with pride to their
German citizens as foremost in doing their duty
in war and in peace. The story of their achieve-
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
ments in war is a subject on which little has hitherto
The Germans from the Palatinate had been scat-
tered on the frontier, facing" the Indians and the
French in New York and Pennsylvania. The early
settlers in South and North Carolina and Georgia
were also largely recruited from the Germans, and
they, too, had still another hostile force to meet,
that of the Spanish troops and Indians, whose
masters were unwilling to see their territory threat-
ened and diminished. The good Moravians gave
up their settlements in Georgia rather than fight,
and thus lost the fruits of some years of labor in
their schools and churches. The sturdy Protestants
from the Palatinate were not afraid to take up arms
in defence of their own homes, and in a very short
time the British government, which had brought
them here as an act of benevolence, found a good
return in the services rendered by the German
settlers as peacemakers with the Indians, and when
necessary, as soldiers against the French and the
Spanish and their native allies. There was, indeed,
quite a characteristic jealousy of them on the part
of their unwarlike neighbors in Pennsylvania, and
not a little of the hostility which marked the
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
treatment of the early German settlers in New York
was due to their sturdy indifference to those, both
Dutch and English, the great land-owners, who
would have controlled them and used them as
feudal serfs. They acknowledged their allegiance
to the crown, and gladly served it. They refused
to submit to the tyranny of great landlords, and
on that account soon left New York to find per-
manent homes under the kindlier sway of the Penns.
Pennsylvania made Conrad Weiser colonel of a
regiment of volunteers from the county of Berks,
and Governor Morris, in 1755, gave him command
over the second battalion of the Pennsylvania regi-
ment, consisting of nine companies. In the defence
of the borders against the Indians and the French,
forts were built by the German settlers above
Harrisburg, at the forks of the Schuylkill, on the
Lehigh, and on the Upper Delaware. The Hon.
Daniel Ermentrout, in his address at the German
Centennial Jubilee in Reading in June, 1876, de-
scribes the Tulpehocken massacre in 1755, just
after Braddock's defeat, the barbarities perpetrated
in Northampton County in 1756, and the attack
on the settlements near Reading in 1763. Against
these forays the Germans under Schneider and
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. TI
Hiester made a stout resistance. As early as 1711
a German battalion, mainly natives of the Palatinate,
was part of the force, a thousand strong, which was
to take part in the expedition to Quebec. While the
Quakers of Pennsylvania kept the government from
exerting its full strength, the Germans, in spite of
their peace principles, stood up stoutly for their own
homesteads. Berks, Bucks, Lancaster, York, and
Northampton were then the frontier counties, and
from them came the men who filled the German
regiments and battalions of the Revolutionary war.
The sufferings inflicted on the German settlers were
not without their influence in inspiring their de-
scendants with the patriotism which made them
good soldiers both in the Revolution and in the
war of the Rebellion.
At the outbreak of the old French war, the
British government, under an act of Parliament
passed for the purpose, organized the Royal Amer-
ican Regiment for service in the colonies. This
force was to consist of four battalions, of one
thousand men each. Fifty of the officers were to
be foreign Protestants, while the enlisted men were
to be raised principally from among the German
settlers in America. The immediate commander,
12 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
General Bouquet, was a Swiss by birth, an English
officer by adoption, and a Pennsylvanian by natu-
ralization. This last distinction was conferred on
him in compliment, and as a reward for his ser-
vices in his campaigns in the western part of
Pennsylvania, where he and his Germans atoned for
the injuries that resulted from Braddock's defeat
in the same border region.*
The first colonel of the regiment .was Lord
Loudoun, and the four battalions were commanded
by Stanwix, Duffeaux, Jeffereys, and Provost. Lord
Howe was commissioned colonel in 1757, when he
was first ordered to America. The regiment itself
still exists as the Sixtieth of the line of the British
army. Bouquet himself died in 1765, at Pensacola,
just after he had received the thanks of the As-
sembly of Pennsylvania for his victory at Bushy
Run in 1763. It was to the Germans of his force
that is due much of the credit of this action, mak-
ing amends for the disaster of Braddock's defeat.
A chaplain of this regiment, who shared in its
* One of the best evidences of the interest taken in this organ-
ization is the sermon preached in Christ Church, Philadelphia, by
the Rev. Dr. William Smith, which was printed at the request of
the colonel and officers.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. ^
operations at Louisburg and on the frontiers, the
Rev. Michael Schlattler, died at Chestnut Hill,
Philadelphia, in 1790, in the enjoyment of a pension
from the British government, although he had
proved himself a good patriot in the Revolutionary
war. His descendants were well known as success-
ful merchants in Philadelphia, while his own mem-
ory is honored by a biography giving an account
of his varied services to the Church.
But from the Germans of Pennsylvania there
went forth an influence among the Indians more
potential in saving the country from desolating
border warfare than soldiers or fortifications. While
the French were striving to make the Indians their
allies in war, the Germans, and especially the Mo-
ravians, were working successfully to convert the
savages into peaceful Christians, and make them
good neighbors, useful and obedient to the author-
ities, and a strong defence against the inroads of
their more savage brethren influenced by the French.
The Moravians sent their members out to preserve
peace ; their knowledge of the Indians and their
languages, their intercourse and intermarriages, had
secured the confidence of the untutored savages.
Parkman, in his last work, " Montcalm and Wolfe
I4 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
in the French War of 1759," describes at length
the mission undertaken by Christian Frederick Post
as envoy to the hostile tribes on the distant Ohio.*
The Moravians were apostles of peace, and they
succeeded to a surprising degree in weaning their
Indian converts from their ferocious instincts and
warlike habits. Post boldly presented himself among
those who were still savage, and his first reception
was by a crowd of warriors, their faces distorted
with rage, threatening to kill him. Soon after the
French offered a great reward for his scalp, but
Post, undaunted, declared to the Indians the coming
of an army to drive off the French, and in return
received the promise of the warlike savages to keep
the peace. After a conference at Easton, Post again
went on a mission of peace to the tribes of the Ohio.
The small escort of soldiers that attended him as
far as the Allegheny, was cut to pieces on its return
* Frederick Post was a German Moravian, who, as early as 1761,
settled in what is now Bethlehem Township, Stark County, Ohio,
where he built a block-house and cleared a few acres of forest,
and established a mission settlement. The family of Heckewelder
joined him there, but later settled at Gnadenhutten in Tuscarawas
County. The site of the former is marked by a few remains of
the old block-house.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. r $
by a band of the very warriors to whom he was
carrying his offers of friendship. His overtures
were accepted, and the Delawares, Shawnees, and
Mingoes ceased to be enemies. The English sol-
diers failed by force of arms to accomplish what
the German missionary had successfully attained.
Thus the work of the Moravians in their quiet
home at Bethlehem had enabled their representa-
tive to gain the friendship and alliance of the In-
dians, and to weaken the force of the French and
proportionately strengthen that of the English, and
this was in no small degree an important factor
in the final overthrow of the French in America.
In Kapp's " History of the Early German Settlers
of New York," we find the names of the first Ger-
man soldiers, those who bore arms in defence of
their hardly-won homesteads against the French and
their allies, the Indians. Among them were the
Weisers, father and son. The elder, John Conrad,
born in Wiirtemberg, came to this country a few
years after his native village was burned by the
French in their invasion in 1693, and died in Penn-
sylvania in 1746, where he and other German settlers
found refuge from the unfair treatment of the wealthy
New York land-owners. Conrad Weiser, his son,
: 6 THE GERMAN SOLDIER /A THE
born in 1696 in Germany, came, with his father, as
a boy to New York, and after a brief experience of
border-life with the German settlers west of the Hud-
son, lived with the Indians long enough to be their
fast friend, and to serve as their intermediary with
the whites, helping thus to preserve the peace in the
midst of hostile influences. He died near Reading, in
1760. As lieutenant-colonel of a Pennsylvania regi-
ment he shared in the hardships of the " old French
war," and secured from the allied Indians an affec-
tion and respect which stood his fellow-Germans in
good stead in later years. His daughter was the
wife of the elder Muhlenberg, the first of that name
to come to this country, and the mother of General
Muhlenberg of Revolutionary fame.
As early as 1711 the elder Weiser had led his
German countrymen in an expedition to Canada, in
defence of the English against the French ; and the
younger Weiser, in 1737, boldly went out among
the wild tribes of native Indians and successfully
brought them to make peace with the new settlers.
In 1748 he penetrated the unknown country west
as far as the Ohio, and in 1754 he united the friendly
Indians in a strong alliance, which served very
greatly to resist the French intrigues and invasions.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. ij
During the Revolutionary war, while many of the
Germans of New York were serving in the army,
their homes and those of their neighbors were
exposed to the attacks of savage enemies, French
and Indians rivalling one another in cruelties. The
German settlers and their families defended them-
selves with real courage, and the story of their heroic
deeds well deserves the lasting record that Kapp has
secured it in his interesting volume. The border
warfare, of what was then Western New York,
showed that among the Germans there were many
stout hearts and strong hands ready to defend their
lives and to protect their families. Each home was
a block-house and every fort a gathering-point, yet
the English were as bitter in repressing the liberty-
loving Germans as ever the French had been in
attacking them for their loyalty to England. Even
when the war ended it was with a sacrifice of lives
and property that fell heavily on the German settlers.
All this, however, was a training and experience that
helped to make them devoted patriots, and earnest in
their readiness to sacrifice everything in defence of
their newly-acquired liberty and independence.
From the same counties came many regiments into
the army that helped to defend and preserve the
!g THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Union, and although the distinctive German charac-
teristics were less marked in New York than in
Pennsylvania, still a military history of New York
in the Rebellion, whenever it is written, will show
that the Germans, descendants of the early Pfaslzers
and Rhinelanders, who had settled in New York in
the early part of the eighteenth century, were fully
alive to the patriotic demand made upon them in the
middle of the nineteenth century.
In 1728, the first conflict in Pennsylvania took
place between Germans and Indians at Manatawny.
In 1755, after Braddock's defeat, the Indians attacked
the Moravian settlements, and all the frontier counties
were ravaged by them. Franklin himself headed a
regiment in defence of Pennsylvania, in which many
Germans served, and he gave them hearty praise for
their bravery. When another outbreak occurred in
1763, Bouquet with his regiment of Royal Americans,
officered as well as manned by Germans, put it down.
The Germans of Charleston, South Carolina, organ-
ized in 1775 a Fusilier Company, which served
through the Revolution and is still in existence.
In Georgia many of the early German settlers en-
listed under General Wayne in the Revolutionary
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. jp
The German soldier has gone through all the
phases of history in our brief experience of war.
In the Revolution the Hessians became a by-word,
and yet they were rather the victims of political
evils than willing partisans. Not the least of Fried-
erich Kapp's great services to both the country of his
adoption and that of his nativity, is his series of
admirable works on the German soldiers of the Revo-
lution, on the one side, his account of the dealings
in them as mercenaries, and on the other, his lives of
Steuben and De Kalb. Much of his material has
supplied that for later authors, notably Green and
Lowell. Von Elking has furnished the story of
Riedesel's life, the commander of the German forces
in the British army. The " Memoirs of Mme. von
Riedesel" will always be read with interest as a pic-
ture of the times of the Revolution, both in Germany
and in America.
The material for a statistical account of the Ger-
man forces engaged in America has been found in
the well-ordered and well-preserved archives of the
various German states from which they came. For
our " War of the Rebellion" such data are not easily
attainable. The story covers too vast a field to be
briefly told. The method of raising troops in the
2Q THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
separate States obliges an inquirer to make an ex-
amination of the printed records of each State, and
these are so voluminous and so unsystematic, that
it is almost impossible to get at the facts of the
nativity of the soldiers serving in their organizations.
Indeed, there still remains to be written a history
of the part of New York in the war, and in those
bulky volumes of war records of States already
printed it is hard to say which is the least satis-
factory on this point.
The Seven Years' war made the name of Germany
and its great leader, Frederick, popular throughout
the colonies. Town, village, and wayside inn dis-
played the well-known sharp features and high
shoulders as a sign, and the " King of Prussia" was
a favorite name for taverns then of more impor-
tance than to-day on all the high-roads between
the great towns.* Steuben was one of Frederick's
own veterans, and as such he was heartily welcomed,
* Sauer, the Germantown printer, published in 1761 a translation
into German of Dilworth's " Life and Heroic Deeds of Frederick
the Great," a volume of 288 pages. Rabbi Franckel's Berlin Thanks-
giving Sermon on the King's Victory of December 5, 1757, was re-
printed in Philadelphia in 1763, in a translation by an unknown
hand (Hildeburn's Issues of the Pennsylvania Press, No. 6725).
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 2 I
when French officers of high rank were coldly re-
ceived. His zeal, his ability, his success, were shown
in the improved discipline and instruction of the
provincial troops. He was so good a soldier that
he knew just how to use the material at hand, and
to make good soldiers and good officers of what
had hitherto been an undisciplined mass. Steuben's
Regulations long remained the manual of the United
States army and its militia. It was not only that
he made the army successful in the field, but the
discipline he had introduced so effectually cultivated
the sense of duty and subordination, that a weak and
impotent Congress, which had utterly failed of its
duty to provide for its soldiers, was still able to
disband peacefully an injured and irritated army.
That he spent the rest of his life in waiting for
justice is not fairly compensated for by the posthu-
mous honors that have been paid his memory since
his death, and the debt of gratitude that America
owes to Steuben is one that can never be fully dis-
Much has been said and written in disparagement
of the German mercenaries serving in the British
army in the war of independence. It must be borne
in mind that in England itself the wickedness of
22 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
thus hiring men against their consent was sharply
denounced. Holland and Russia absolutely refused
to accept the tempting offers of Great Britain. King
George, himself a German sovereign, mildly pro-
tested against thus using his Hanoverian troops.
Frederick the Great sternly forbade the enlistment
of any of his subjects or permission to any of the
petty German princes to take their soldiers through
his territories to ports of shipment to England for
America. Schiller stigmatized the trade in men in
his " Kabale und Liebe," while Kant went still further
and embraced the cause of the American colonist
with all the energy of his great intellect. Klop-
stock and Lessing spoke in the same strain, al-
though in lower tones. Frederic Kapp puts the total
of twenty-nine thousand one hundred and sixty-six
as the number furnished by Brunswick, Hesse-Cassel,
Hanau, Waldeck, Anspach, and Anhalt, and of these
only seventeen thousand three hundred and thirteen
returned to their native country. How many of the
remainder stayed in their new home to become
fathers of American citizens cannot be easily ascer-
tained, yet it is more than a tradition that in Penn-
sylvania, in Maryland, in Virginia, in North Caro-
lina, wherever there were German settlers ready to
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 2 $
aid the newcomers, the sick, the wounded, the
stragglers, the deserters, all found protection and a
welcome, which insured them prosperity and a better
livelihood than they had left behind them. Their
number has been roughly estimated at considerably
over ten thousand.
There were many Germans settled in the colonies
before the Revolution, who cast their fortunes with
the young republic and shared in the struggle which
secured independence and union.
The German Battalion was raised agreeably to a
resolve of Congress of May 22, 1776, four companies
in Pennsylvania and four in Maryland, to which was
added a ninth company by resolve of July 9, 1777.
The officers were : Lieutenant-Colonel, Ludwick
Weltener; Major, Daniel Burckhart; Captains, Jacob
Bunner, Peter Boyer, Charles Baltzel, William Rice,
Bernard Hubley, Christian Myers, Michael Bayer;
Captain-Lieutenant, Philip Schrauder; Lieutenants,
John Weidman, Martin Sugart, Jacob Gremeth, Jacob
Cramer, Godfrey Swartz, Marcus Young, David Mor-
gan ; Ensigns, John Weidman, Henry Shrupp, David
Desenderfer, Henry Spech, Jacob Raboldt, Christian
Glichner, William Prux, Henry Hehn.
An independent corps of one hundred and fifty
24 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
men was raised by resolve of December 5, 1776, of
which the officers were : Captains, John Paul Schott,
In Henry's account of Arnold's campaign against
Quebec, 1775 (Albany, Munsell, 1877), is a reference
to the company of riflemen commanded by Captain
William Hendricks, from Cumberland County, Penn-
sylvania, " an excellent body of men, formed by na-
ture as the stamina of an army, fitted for a tough
and tight defence of the liberties of their country."
Hendricks " was tall, of a mild and beautiful counte-
nance, his soul was animated by a genuine spark
of heroism." He was killed at Quebec, in the same
attack in which General Montgomery fell, on the 1st
of January, 1776, and the two heroes were buried
side by side. Provost Smith, in his oration on Mont-
gomery, speaks with unstinted praise of the Pennsyl-
vania riflemen. Their funeral was marked by the
British officers with every mark of honor. Of Hen-
dricks's company, raised on the west side of the Sus-
quehanna, scarcely a dozen names have been res-
cued from oblivion. Of the flower of the country,
brave, ardent, and patriotic, and nowise daunted by
the sufferings of the Arnold campaign, nearly all of
those who returned safely from it served again in the
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 2 $
Revolution. He is spoken of with equal praise by
Thayer in his "Journal of the Invasion of Canada in
1775," edited by Stone, published in Providence,
Rhode Island, in 1867.
In Harris's " Biographical History of Lancaster
County" (Lancaster, 1872), there are many names of
its German settlers and their descendants who served
as soldiers, with honor to themselves and credit to
race whence they sprang.
In Hamersly's " Dictionary of the Army," and on
the register of the army for 1784, there are the
familiar names of General Steuben, inspector-general,
and his aide-de-camp, Major William North, and that
of Major Continental Artillery, Sebastian Bauman,
captain New York Continental Artillery Company,
1776, brevet lieutenant-colonel, 1787.
The following hitherto unprinted letter of De
Kalb, from the unrivalled collection of Ferdinand
J. Dreer, Esq., of Philadelphia, is so characteristic
of that hero, in its manly refusal to accept military
precedence to Lafayette, that it is well worth publica-
tion, as showing the noble nature of the man :
"BETHLEHEM, l8 Sepf. 1777-
"Sm, I have been ever since I had the favour
your letter by Mr. Secretary Thomson, in a very
2 6 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
uncertain and fluctuating Situation of mind, be-
tween the desire of serving in your Army, and the
apprehension of blame from home. But Congress
and your Esteem do me too much Honour, not
to accept your late proposals, if they will grant me
Several points I think essential to my tranquillity
and entire satisfaction. 1st. That I may be at Lib-
erty to give up my Commission if in answer to the
account I will send to France of my proceedings
here and my behaviour towards those officers that
came over with me, in case they were to exclaim
against my stay, in anyway that could be hurtfull
to my reputation and honour.
" 2nd. As to the offer made to me by the Ministry
of Mr. Thomson to have my Commission done of
an older date than Marquiss de la Fayette's. I would
decline it and have my Commission of the same
day with his. That it may be in my power to
show my regard for his friendship to me, in giving
him the Seniority over me in America, in order, too,
not to disgust him.
" 3rd. That Congress will be pleased to grant to
Chev. Dubuysson, a Commission as Lt. Colonel with
only the pay as a Major, or as my aid de Camp.
"4th. That they will please to make provision for
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 2 /
said Chev. Dubuysson of having the assurance of
a Pension of 1200 Livres French money or fifty
Louis d'ors to be paid in France for life if he serves
this and next Campaign, and which they will aug-
ment at pleasure if he serves longer and they are
satisfied with his having done his duty according
to time and circumstances.
" 5th. That if Congress are disposed to do any-
thing of that kind for myself it shall be done at
their own terms and pleasure. The only thing I
could wish in that respect, would be to have the
favour bestowed on my Lady and children in case
I died in the Continental Army or any other way
while in their service.
" On said Conditions I am ready to join the army
as soon as possible and to go directly to Philadel-
phia from Lancaster, where I will wait for a Resolve
of Congress, by Chev. Dubuysson, bearer of this.
" Another observation I think necessary in regard
to the immediate Command of a Division. General
Washington has perhaps friends or deserving officers
to whom he would give the preference, in such a
case I should be sorry my coming in did in the
least cross or prevent his dispositions in this and
any other respects. I will gladly and entirely
2 8 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
submit to his Commands and to be employed as
he shall think most convenient for the good of the
Service. If my second aid de Camp I am to chuse,
chanced to be a foreigner, I should be glad some
provision was made for him after leaving the service,
in proportion to his rank as a Major.
" I depend for the Settling of all these matters to
the Satisfaction of all parties, on the friendship you
are so kind to profess for me, and of which I have
already so many proofs. These new obligations
cannot increase the respect and high Esteem with
which I have the Honour to be,
" Your most obedient,
" Humble Servant,
"BARON DE KALB.
" COLONEL RICHARD HENRY LEE,
" Member of Congress."
This is endorsed :
" Com d to B d War
" 1 8th & 23d Sept. 1777, acted upon."
From the same treasure-house of original material
for history comes the letter from Steuben, written in
French, from which the following is an extract :
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
r- " Dear Friend
" I have received your two letters of the I2th and
2Oth February, I would rather have seen you in
person. I am infinitely obliged to you for your
news, for every thing which occurs in the army is
of interest. I am infinitely sorry for your account
of Col. Bruchs and Major Gils and would be glad
to help them. To lose such an officer as Bruchs
would be a real misfortune. I have already spoken
of it to the President of Congress et je parlerai
au bon Dieu et au Diable. I would move Heaven
and Earth to prevent it. We are waiting for news
from Gibraltar and Charlestown, as the Jews wait
for the Messiah. I have bet a hat on the fall of
Gibraltar, but I am afraid I shall win only a night
cap. Our papers are full of epigrams, abuse, and
dreams of the late Mr. de Galvan on the American
army, his friends want to immortalize him. Let
me know if North has decided to go beyond Boston,
for in that case I fear much, but no, I won't fear
anything. I hoped to present my compliments to
Mrs. Washington en route when your last letter
reported that she had gone. I would like to see
you in my hermitage, where I am better quartered
than since I came to America. I rarely go into the
j O THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
city, but my friends come to see me in my cottage.
I receive visits from European Grandees, such as
the Prince de Guimene, of the house of Rohan,
who claim to be next after the Bourbons in France.
The Due de Lauzun, the Comte de Gillon, have
both been here too. Our American Grandees are
too busy with great affairs to pay visits, but I have
no pretensions, for I have paid no visit except to
the President of Congress, nor will I. Yesterday I
was at a supper and ball given by M. de la Luzerne
to the newly married Major Moore and his wife,
there were eighty persons, and among them many
pretty women. . . . My fate is not yet decided.
I have just written to Congress to demand a Com-
mittee, to which I can submit my uncomfortable
situation. I get no pay, rations or forage, and I
live on money I borrow to pay my marketing. My
case is one of 'to be or not to be/ I am ready
for anything. The Secretary of War will find it no
harder to replace me than the Adjutant-General,
whose position he offered to several persons of my
acquaintance. ' Let him go' is the favorite phrase
of our Secretaries nowadays. I saw Robert Morris
yesterday, he seems more affected by the conditions
of the army than anybody. I hope that after the
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 31
1st of January, not only will the subsistence of the
officers be regularly paid, but that it may be in-
creased. Say to them that no matter what happens,
nothing can prevent me from being their advocate.
... I cannot deal with Lincoln, he has done me
more harm than he thinks, but I don't want to be
anybody's enemy, not even his. There are some
people who are dangerous only as friends, and he
is one of them, so it is prudent for me to treat him
with indifference. I was not the aggressor, I sought
his friendship, and if he had honored me with his
confidence, my advice would have been better for
him than that of his friend Cornel. . . . The Prince
de Guimene wants to make the acquaintance of the
General in chief, he said so to me, and if my
finances do not prevent, I will go with him. Al-
though he is only a Midshipman on the Frigate, he
is a young man of the highest nobility in France,
a grandson of the Prince de Soubise, who is Mar-
shal of France. I give you warning, so that in case
he comes, his air of a little wild boy may not prevent
you showing him the consideration due to his birth.
But what nonsense to talk this way in a Republic.
My respects to the General.
"Nov. the 26th."
32 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
The register for 1789 gives, captain First Infantry,
David Ziegler (late captain First Pennsylvania Conti-
nental Infantry). In the Indian border warfare be-
tween 1788 and 1795, a leading figure was that of
David Ziegler, whose story is typical of that of
many of our early German soldiers. Born in Heidel-
berg in 1748, he served in the Russian campaign
against the Turks under Catharine, until the con-
quest of the Crimea brought peace. He settled in
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1775, and as adjutant of
a Pennsylvania regiment, more than half made up of
Germans, the second to enlist under Washington
for the war, and as senior captain of the First Penn-
sylvania Continental Regiment, he won great praise.
Later on he raised a company for war against the
Indians in the West, and took part in Clark's expe-
dition, and was with General Harmar in 1790, and
with St. Clair in 1791, in command of a battalion
of regulars. He was made major and temporarily
assigned command of the army, for six weeks, but
was led to resign, and was the first mayor of Cin-
cinnati, where he died in 1811. The army list for
1805-6 has, Captain Artillery, Michael Kalteisen,
who had been distinguished in connection with the
Charleston (South Carolina) German company.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Michael Kalteisen was born at Wachtelsheim,
Wurtemberg, on the i8th of June, 1729; in 1762
he was established in business in Charleston, South
Carolina, where a large German population had
already gathered. In 1766, with fifteen of his coun-
trymen, he established the German Friendly Society
of that city, and by the time of the Revolution it
counted a hundred members, and was well enough
off to advance two thousand pounds to the State
for defence against the Crown. On the I2th of July,
1775, he set on foot the plan of a German military
organization, which under the name of the German
Fusiliers, by 1776, counted over a hundred Germans
in its ranks. Its captain was Alexander Gillon, first
lieutenant Peter Bouquet (brother of the general of
that name), second lieutenant Kalteisen, ensign
Gideon Dupont. From the day of their organiza-
tion they proved themselves true and ardent patriots.
In 1779 it took part with the Continental forces
under Lincoln and the French squadron under
D'Estaing, in the siege of Savannah, having its cap-
tain, Scheppert, killed in the same assault in which
Pulaski fell. The first captain, Gillon, had been
made captain of the South Carolina fleet in 1779,
and sent to France to buy three frigates. The
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Prince of Luxemburg gave him one for three years,
on a guarantee of its safe return and a fourth share
of all prize money. He finally led a squadron of
eighty sail, and took the " Bahamas." He left a son
who, in 1817, was a member of the Fusiliers. Kal-
teisen died in 1807, and the hall of the German
Society, with its tablet in his memory, was destroyed
by fire in 1864. The Fusiliers, however, still exist,
and the German Society still perpetuates the useful
charity set on foot by him.
Of the general officers of the Continental army, the
Germans were John De Kalb, F. von de Woedtke,
F. W. A. Steuben.
In the pages of that excellent and useful journal,
Der Deutsche Pionier, the organ of the society es-
tablished under that name to preserve everything
that relates to the history of the German settlers
in this country, are found many records of the
Germans who served the cause of American lib-
erty, both in the Revolutionary war and in that
of the Rebellion. Herkimer in New York, and
Muhlenberg in Pennsylvania, are names that will
long preserve the memory of the services of the
first German soldiers in defence of their adopted
country. The records of the Continental army show
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
that in almost every regiment there were Germans,
and in those of Pennsylvania, whole regiments, bat-
talions, and companies organized, officered, and filled
with Germans, who did good service for their coun-
*;ry. In the then western wilderness of Kentucky,
Daniel Boone, with others like himself of German
birth or descent, did their share in securing Amer-
ican liberty in their new home. In Virginia, North
and South Carolina, and Georgia, there were many
German settlers, and from their number many went
into the patriot army, sharing its hardships and
contented with helping to secure the final establish-
ment of American independence as their full re-
ward. In Gustav Korner's " Das Deutsche Element
in den Vereinigten Staaten," Cincinnati, 1880, there
is a graphic account of the Germans from 1818 to
1848, with frequent reference to the earlier, as well
as the later, Germans who took a distinguished place
among the soldiers of the young republic in its
first Revolution, and in its subsequent wars. Her-
kimer, Lutterloh, and Weissenfels in New York,
Muhlenberg in Pennsylvania, Michael Kalteisen and
his associates in the German Fusilier Company of
Charleston, South Carolina, the oldest military or-
ganization of the country, established in 1775, are
36 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
among those who were the first German citizens by
their sacrifices and their services to secure the right
to a place in the home of their adoption.
Friedrich Heinrich Baron von Weissenfels was the
friend and companion of Washington, Steuben, and
De Kalb, and his name deserves to be rescued frori
oblivion. Born in Elbing, Prussia, in succession to
a line of soldiers (his father was major in the
Swedish army), he served in the Silesian war under
Frederick the Great, and, like Steuben, won at the
hands of that royal soldier his decoration and order;
in 1756 he entered the English service to take part
in the old French war, was made an officer in the
Royal American, the Sixtieth of the line, took part
in the attack on Fort Ticonderoga, and the capture of
Havana in 1762. He was at the side of Wolfe when
he fell at Quebec, and served in the same regiment
as St. Clair. Put on half pay at the close of the war,
he settled in New York, married a widow Bogart
there, and had Steuben and Van Courtland as his
groomsmen. As soon as the colonies began the
Revolution, casting aside all thought of his own
interest, he offered his services to the Continental
Congress; was made captain of a regiment organized
in New York in 1775, and was brigade-major at
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 37
Quebec with Montgomery and Worster. In 1776 he
was made lieutenant-colonel in command of the Third
Battalion of the Second New York Regiment of the
line, and was soon promoted to be colonel, serving at
White Plains and at Trenton, and at the capture of
Burgoyne, as well as at Monmouth. In 1779 he
was second in command under Sullivan in an ex-
pedition against the Indians. He was distinguished
for his personal gallantry, and was honored by Wash-
ington and Congress with many marks of grateful
acknowledgment. He died in New Orleans in 1806,
poor in purse but rich in glory. His only son died
in 1798, in Alexandria, Virginia, his widow in 1818,
and his daughter in 1856. He was the first Vice-
President of the German Society of New York, with
Steuben as its President. He was one of the original
members of the Society of the Cincinnati, and his
fellow Germans in that organization deserve to be
chronicled here, to show the appreciation of their
share in the great work of securing the independence
of the American republic.
These original members were :
Major-General Steuben, who died in 1795.
Colonel Henry Emanuel Lutterloh, a President of
the German Society of New York.
38 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Colonel Nicholas Fish, of New York.
Colonel Frederick von Weissenfels, of the Second
New York Regiment.
Major Sebastian Baumann, died 1803, of the Sec-
ond New York Artillery Regiment.
Captain Henry Ticbout, died 1826, First New
Captain George Sytez, First New York Regi-
Lieutenant Peter Anspach, Second New York
Lieutenant Henry Demler, Second New York
Lieutenant Joseph Freilich, Second New York
Lieutenant Michael Wetzel, Second New York
Lieutenant John Furmann, First New York Regi-
Lieutenant Carl Fr. Weissenfels, Second New
Captain-Lieutenant Peter Neslett, New York Ar-
Captain-Lieutenant Peter Jaulmann, Sappers and
Miners, died 1835.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 39
This list is of the German members of the Society
of the Cincinnati in New York alone, and no doubt
on the rolls of the Society in other States there
will be found many other Germans whose names
belong to the roll of soldiers distinguished for their
services in the war of the Revolution.
In Seidensticker's admirable and exhaustive " His-
tory of the German Society of Pennsylvania," there
is a brief mention of the services of the Germans of
Philadelphia in the patriot cause. In May, 1776,
Congress organized a German regiment, of com-
panies from Pennsylvania and Maryland, the Penn-
sylvania companies were five in number, and those
from Maryland four. One of the Philadelphia com-
panies was commanded by Colonel David Woelpper,
an old soldier, for he had served in Germany under
Frederick the Great, and in the old French war
under Washington. The German regiment was first
commanded by Hausegger, and it served with credit
in Muhlenberg's brigade throughout the Revolution.
Other German companies were raised at that time,
and many Germans served in various arms of the
service. The fines and penalties imposed on the
German citizens of well-known rebel principles are
all recited in Seidensticker's history, showing how
40 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
strongly the German element in and about Phila-
delphia adhered to the patriot cause even at the
time the British held the city. In Mr. H. M. Jen-
kins's " History of Gwynedd," there is a similar
collection of evidence as to the stout adhesion of
the Germans of Montgomery County to the rebel
side. He tells the story of one of their number
who was charged with the serious offence of giving
information to the enemy, and escaped finally severe
punishment on the merciful ground that he was a
weak politician, a plea that would cover many
offences in our own day and generation.
John Paul Schott, the commander of a battalion in
Armand's legion, was born in Prussia in 1744,
served as a cadet, became adjutant of Prince Fer-
dinand of Brunswick, came to America in 1776, was
authorized to raise an independent company of Ger-
man dragoons, led the right wing of Hand's brigade
in Sullivan's army, in 1779, in the attack on the Five
Nations, and commanded the forts in Wyoming Val-
ley to the close of the war. He filled a variety of
civil offices afterwards, dying in Philadelphia in
Washington's mounted body-guard was led by
Major Barth. van Heer, and consisted of fourteen
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. ^
officers and fifty-three men, nearly all Germans. The
First Continental Regiment of Pennsylvania was
commanded by Colonel John Philipp de Haas, who
was born in 1735, came to America in 1750, was en-
sign in the French war, became a brigadier-general
in 1777, took part in the expedition to Canada, and
served with credit to the close of the war.
Among the French allied army sent to the help
of the struggling colonies were many Germans, and
the investigation of H. A. Ratterman, editor of the
Pionier, attests both their number and influence. It
will be found in volume xiii. of that journal (1881),
at pages 317, 360, and 420. Colonel Esebeck com-
manded a regiment, " Zweibriicken" (the German
equivalent for the French " Deux Ponts"). In Force's
" Archives" many of the details of others are given.
At the time it was a matter of arrangement be-
tween neighboring and friendly princes, how many
of the men of one country should enlist in the
army of another. France had troops from the
Rhine Provinces, Baden, Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, Ans-
pach, and Switzerland in its service. With the
Zweibriicken Regiment came the two princes of
the name, Major Esebeck in command, and Captain
Haake. A battalion from Trier served in Custine's
42 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
regiment, one from Elssass, in the Bourbonnais, a
large number were in Lauzun's cavalry regiment, and
an Anhalt regiment assisted in the siege of Savannah.
Among the German officers in the French service
were Count Fersen, chief of staff of Rochambeau,
besides his adjutant, Von Closen, and his chief of
artillery, Gau. Count von Stedingk commanded the
Anhalt regiment, and, like his friend Fersen, be-
longed to the old Pomeranian nobility, although
both afterwards died in the Swedish service.
At Yorktown the Germans in the American army
fought for a time against the Germans under the
English flag, and the commands were given on both
sides in German. A detachment of Germans placed
the French flag on the walls of Yorktown after its
capture. Among the prisoners were countrymen of
the troops put over them as a guard, and many of
them met as old friends and neighbors. When
Tarleton tried to force his way out of the lines, it
was with the German cavalry under Ewald, and
they were met and repulsed by the Germans under
Armand. Ratterman's estimate that eleven thou-
sand German soldiers remained in this country after
the war, may well be credited with recruits from
both sides. With the Germans in the Pennsylvania
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 43
brigade of Muhlenberg and the Maryland brigade
of Gist, the soldiers of the German regiments in the
English service soon made friends and found new
homes. Indeed, the Anspach regiment, two days
after the capitulation, offered their services as a body.
Elking gives a list of twenty-eight officers of the
Brunswick regiment who either remained or re-
turned here after the war to settle.
In the " History of the Early Settlement and In-
dian Wars of Western Virginia," by Wills de Hass,
(Wheeling and Philadelphia, 1851), at page 344, is a
brief biographical sketch of Lewis Wetzel, a typical
borderer, a brave and successful Indian fighter, and
the right arm of the settlers in their almost ceaseless
war with the natives. His father was one of the
first settlers on Wheeling Creek, and was killed in
1787 by Indians, sacrificing his own life to save that
of his comrades. From that time the son, then
almost twenty-three years of age, and already well
trained by his father, devoted himself to avenging
his life. At twenty-five he enlisted under General
Harmar, commanding at Marietta, and, while in the
army, he shot an Indian, was arrested, escaped, and
reached home, in spite of prison, guard, and fetters.
An attempt to recapture him was given up out of
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
fear of a counter-rebellion against the United States
troops, and when he did get into their hands, General
Harmar promptly released him. He went to New
Orleans, was there arrested, was released a broken
man, yet he was long active in leading new set-
tlers and purchasers through the trackless forests of
Western Virginia, until his death in 1808. The
name is perpetuated in Wetzel County, West Vir-
ginia, although the early German name seems to have
passed through numerous variations, Whetzell,
Whitzell, Watzel, and Wetzel, but of its German
derivation there can, of course, be no doubt. The
Poes, too, who figure in this border history, were
sons of German settlers, from Frederick County,
Maryland, and the elder Frederick Poe, who moved
west in 1774, and died in 1840 at the age of ninety-
three, was, like his younger brother, Andrew, a back-
woodsman in every sense of the word. Shrewd,
active, and courageous, they fixed their abode on
the frontier of civilization, determined to contest
inch by inch with the native Indians their right to
the soil and their privilege to live. Their hairbreadth
escapes and bold adventures remain even now among
the legends of their early homes, and fortunately are
preserved in the pages of the local historian. As
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
late as 1846 there was found at the mouth of the
Kanawha one of the leaden plates suitably inscribed,
bearing date 1749, and asserting the claim of France
to the region watered by the Ohio River and its
tributaries, and others were found at Venango and
Marietta. Washington's expedition with the Vir-
ginia troops in 1754 first made this region familiar
to the colonists, and settlements soon began. From
Pennsylvania came some of the German Dunkards,
who hoped to practise the peaceful doctrines of their
Ephrata brethren, but with them came others more
willing to fight than to pray, preferring to take land
by force rather than by purchase. Braddock's cam-
paign, with its disaster, only served to make the
region better known to the Provincial troops, and
from them came the best settlers in the region thus
opened. The fate of the Christian and Moravian
Indians, settled at Gnadenhiitten, Schonbrunn, Salem,
and Lichtenau, massacred in cold blood, is a per-
manent blot upon the leaders in that inexcusable
raid, and it was terribly revenged in the utter failure
of the next attack, in 1782.
General George Weedon, really Gerhard von der
Wieden, was born in Hanover, served in the war of
the Austrian Succession, 1742-48, was distinguished
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
for his performance at the battle of Dettingen, served
with Colonel Henry Bouquet in Flanders, came with
him as lieutenant in his Royal American Regiment,
and served with it in the old French war, in the cap-
ture of Fort du Quesne, and in the campaign against
the Indians. The war over, he settled in Fredericks-
burg, Virginia, then largely populated by Germans,
and when the Revolution broke out became captain
and later on lieutenant-colonel of the Third Virginia
Militia, colonel of the First Virginia Continental, and
finally, on February 24, 1777, brigadier-general,
taking a leading part in the battles of Brandywine
and Germantown; he left the service for a time, then
in 1780 re-entered it under Muhlenberg, and com-
manded the Virginia militia at the siege of York-
Armahd's legion was originally organized by
Nicholas Dietrich Freiherr von Ottendorff, a Saxon
nobleman, lieutenant under Frederick the Great, who
came to this country with Kosciuszko, and became
major, commanding an independent corps of light
infantry. It was subsequently reorganized as cavalry
under Armand, Ottendorff became lieutenant-colonel,
and his adjutant, Howelman, a Hanoverian nobleman,
together with the officers of the companies, were all
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
advanced in grade, the names are given in full in
the eighth volume of the Pionier (1876-77), p. 436.
Of the Pennsylvania Germans who were soldiers
in the Revolution the Hiesters were prominent ex-
amples. Four sons of one family were officers :
Daniel, the eldest, colonel, John and Gabriel, ma-
jors, and William, the youngest, captain ; a cousin,
Joseph, was in the " Flying Camp," became colonel,
later major-general of militia, a member of Congress,
and a leader of his party in Berks County down to
his death in 1832, in his eightieth year. John and
Daniel, too, became major-generals of militia, and
they, too, were also sent to Congress, one from
Pennsylvania and the other from Maryland, where
he made his home.
The knowledge of the early Germans, and their
share in our history, will no longer be hidden in the
records of scattered local periodicals. In the series
of " Geschichtsblatter, Bilder u. Mittheikmgen aus
dem Leben der Deutschen in Amerika, herausgege-
ben von Carl Schurz," published in New York by
Steiger, we have the promise of a valuable contribu-
tion to our slender stock of available information as
to the Germans in the United States. The first vol-
ume of this series is a reprint of Kapp's " Die Deut-
48 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
schen im Staate New York wahrend des iSten Jahr-
hunderts," originally published in Leipsic and New
York, in 1867. At page 126 there is a list of the
officers of the four battalions organized in Schoharie
Valley by Germans, in 1775, to take part in the war
of independence. All four colonels were Germans,
viz. : Nicholas Herchheimer, First Battalion, Canajo-
harie ; Jacob Kloch, Second Battalion, the Pfalz ;
Friedrich Fischer, Third Battalion, Mohawk ; Hanjost
Herchheimer, Fourth Battalion, German Flats. The
Herchheimers were the sons of an early German set-
tler in Western New York, who had won distinction
by his gallant defence against Indian attacks in the
old French war. General Nicholas Herchheimer, who
fell in battle in 1777 in defence of the liberties of his
country, was honored with the praise of Washington,
and by a modest monument which perpetuates his
services and sacrifice. One of his soldiers, born in
Germany, J. A. Hartmann, survived until 1836, when
he died at the age of ninety-two, after an old age of
poverty, borne with fortitude, and his name is now
best remembered in his old home, where he lived at
the public expense, as an example of the tardy grati-
tude of the republic he too had aided to establish.
Herchheimer is the type of the well-to-do settlers
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
of German descent, Hartmann of the poor emigrant,
but both did their duty manfully in the struggle for
independence, and thus set an example freely fol-
lowed by others, Germans both by birth and descent,
who fought for the Union.
Among the leading German soldiers of the Revo-
lutionary war from New York, was Hermann von
Zedwitz, major of the First Regiment; his life is
sketched by Alfred Schiicking in volume iii., p. 185,
of the Pionier. The command of Montreal was given
to Colonel Rudolph Witzema of the same regiment,
an old officer in the Royal Colonial army, who left
the Continental army under a cloud, returned to
England, and died there in 1803.
The share of the Germans as officers and soldiers
on the patriot side in the war of the Revolution won
them the confidence and gratitude of Washington.
The Hessians under Riedesel, who surrendered with
Burgoyne, were sent to Virginia, where they lived
near Jefferson, who thus learned to know them, gave
them the use of his library, and enjoyed their
The second volume of Schurz's series, " Bilder aus
der Deutsch Pennsylvanischen Geschichte," is from
the pen of Professor Oswald Seidensticker, whose
50 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
services in the cause of our local German history
have received general acknowledgment for their
thoroughness and accuracy. He describes in detail
the part taken by the Germans of Pennsylvania in
both the Continental army under Washington and
the Provincial or State militia, and gives the names
of the officers of the German Battalion, and their
share in the war of independence. In the Second,
Third, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Pennsylvania Regi-
ments were many Germans. The Second was com-
manded by Colonel Philippe de Haas ; the lieutenant-
colonel of the Third was Robert Bunner, who fell at
Monmouth, in 1778; and Mentges of the Fifth and
Becker of the Sixth were also Germans. Many of
these were members of the German Society, and
Colonel Farmer, first captain of a company of sharp-
shooters, and later commissary-general, was four
times president of the German Society after the
Reading sent three Hiesters, and York many Ger-
mans, in the regiments that served in the Revolution.
Pennsylvania Germans were numerous in Armand's
legion, in Schott's dragoons, and in Van Heer's
cavalry brigade. Quakers, Mennonites, Bunkers,
and Herrnhiiters sacrificed their religious tenets
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. $i
and associations to serve their country, while the
Lutherans and others who had no conscientious
scruples against bearing arms, were well represented
in the field. Foremost among these was General
Muhlenberg, born in Montgomery County in 1746,
the son of the oldest clergyman of the Lutheran
Church in Pennsylvania, who destined all his three
sons to follow him in the church, educated at Halle,
settled in 1772 in Virginia, as pastor of a German
Lutheran congregation in the Shenandoah Valley.
He there became a friend of Patrick Henry and Wash-
ington. Earnestly supporting the cause of Ameri-
can independence, he became colonel of the Eighth
Virginia, with Abraham Bowman and Peter Helfen-
stein as his field-officers. In January, 1776, he
preached his last sermon, urging on his hearers the
duty of patriotic devotion to the cause of the
country, and then, throwing aside the clerical gown,
showed his military uniform, and instantly over three
hundred of his listeners followed his example and
joined his regiment. Congress soon made him a
brigadier-general, and throughout the war his zeal,
his courage, his energy, were appreciated by Wash-
ington and Lafayette, and the other leaders of the
Revolution. His part in the final surrender of Corn-
52 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
wallis at Yorktown made him a major-general, and
yet so modest was he that when peace returned his
old parishioners would gladly have made him once
more their pastor. Seven years of war had, how-
ever, changed the current of his thoughts, and set-
tling in Philadelphia, he became vice-president of the
State, under Franklin, and, owing to Franklin's age
and infirmities, was practically the head of the gov-
ernment. In 1788 he and his brother worked ener-
getically to secure the adoption of the Constitution
of 1789, and under it he sat in the First Congress,
as well as in the Second and the Sixth, always a stout
advocate of the Democratic party ; he was three
times president of the German Society. His de-
scendants, and those of his venerable father, have
served the state and the church in many ways, and
always with honor to their German blood. His
statue stands in the Capitol at Washington, as the
representative man chosen by Pennsylvania to take
a place among the heroes gathered there from all
parts of the country. His name and his fame are part
of the inheritance which the German population of
Pennsylvania transmits to future generations to show
how thoroughly the German element has done its
duty alike in war and in peace, and how well it
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 53
deserves to have its record preserved and published
for the information of their descendants and of the
Many of the early settlers of Kentucky were Ger-
mans from Virginia and North Carolina, and they
held the frontier outposts against the incursions of
hostile Indians. Many old Revolutionary soldiers
there found homes, and their sons were active in the
war of 1812. Frankfort, the capital of the State,
owes its name to its German founders, for the most
part emigrants from Frankfort-on-the-Main, and its
vicinity, who came hither in 1786-87. The first phy-
sician was Dr. Louis Marschall, father of Humphrey
Marshall, noted in both the civil and military his-
tory of Kentucky. Thus many of the German names
were anglicized, some e.g., Jager translated into
Hunter completely disguised, yet the industry of
local historians has shown that a very large part
of the early settlement of Kentucky was made by
Among the soldiers of German descent a marked
and exceptional case is that of General John A.
Quitman. He was the son of the pastor of the
German Lutheran Church of Schoharie, who was
himself born in Iserlohn, Germany, and came to this
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
country in 1/95. The father was a strong, deter-
mined man, with a high notion of his own impor-
tance, who showed a will of his own not unlike that
of the son. The elder Quitman left Schoharie to
become pastor of the church in Rheinbeck, where
he died in 1832. His son was born there in 1798,
and educated by his father's successor. As a young
man he went South, became a distinguished lawyer
and member of Congress from his new home in
Natchez, Mississippi, took a leading place among
the general officers of volunteers in the Mexican
war, was prominent in urging on the people of
the South the extreme doctrines of States' rights,
rejoicing in the name of fire-eater, and was generally
looked on as the intellectual leader of the agitation
which finally ended in the Rebellion of 1861. His
death, in 1858, saved him from sharing in the de-
vastation his theories had brought over the section
which accepted him as their representative.
In the Revolution there were adherents of Whigs
and Tories even in the same family, and this was
as true of the Germans as of the other nationalities
settled in the colonies ; but in the Rebellion the mi-
nority in either of the two great sections into which
the country was divided had little power or influence
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
to stem the tide that finally led to the success of
the Union. Still, the Germans were found on both
sides, for the self-reliant, independent character of
the German leads him to choose his own course,
and to adhere to it in spite of popular opposition.
In Arkansas, Klingelhoffer, son of the founder of a
German colony at Little Rock, became an officer
of the Confederate army.
The registers and rolls of the regular army of the
United States bear the names of many distinguished
soldiers of German birth and descent, and not a few
of them brought to the service of their new father-
land the training and experience acquired in their
native country. In the exhaustive dictionaries of
the army by Gardiner and Henry and Hamersly,
and in the invaluable pages of General George W.
Cullum's " Record of the Graduates of West Point,"
are found many examples of the German soldier in
the army of the United States. One example de-
serves special mention.
John Baptiste de Earth, Baron de Walbach, brig-
adier-general and colonel commanding Fourth Ar-
tillery, U.S.A., was the third son of Count Joseph
de Barth and Marie Therese de Rohmer. He was
born in Munster, Valley of St. Gregory, Upper
ij 6 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Rhine, Germany, on the 3d day of October, 1766,
and was educated at the military school at Stras-
bourg. In December, 1792, he entered as a cadet
the company commanded by Baron de Wald, Regi-
ment of Royal Alsace, Prince Maximillian of Deux
Fonts colonel and proprietor, in the service of the
King of France. He was promoted and served in
the same regiment as ensign until October, 1783,
and then until November as gentleman volunteer in
the hussars, General Baron de Kellerman command-
ing. From January, 1783, until January 9, 1784,
he served in the Regiment of Luzern Hussars,
when he received the appointment of sub-lieutenant
(cornet), and continued to serve in the successive
grades, second lieutenant, first lieutenant, until May,
1792, and captain. Declining the commission of
captain, he left France to join the armies of the
Prince, brother of King Louis XVI. He served
in this army as gentleman volunteer, on horseback,
at his own expense, under Colonel Count de Pes-
talozzi, his former colonel of the Luzern Hussars.
With this corps he made the campaign in Cham-
pagne, in 1792, in the advance of the Prussian army,
until it was disbanded at Maestrich. He then left
Liege, passed through the French lines to Treves,
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 57
and brought back his sister, Mme. Blondeau, and
placed her, with their three children, under the care
of her husband, lieutenant-colonel, formerly major,
of artillery, who had served in the army of Rocham-
beau in America. He then went to Germany, took
part in the attack on Frankfort, January 6, 1793,
and later joined the Sixty-second Company, First
Battalion of the Austrian Chasseurs of Conde,
serving, during the campaign of 1793, in attacks
on the French lines at Germersheim, Yorkheim,
Langenkardet, and Weissembourg, where the Aus-
trians captured one hundred and fifty-five pieces of
cannon ; the losses in both armies being estimated
at twenty-two thousand men. He then accepted
a captaincy from the Prince de Rohan, and covered
the retreat of the unfortunate army of the Duke of
York northward to Holland and Germany. Finally
he embarked with his regiment, the Hussars of
Rohan, for the British West Indies, on the promise
of the British Government that they should always
serve on horseback, and that at the end of four
years they were to be returned to their homes.
In 1798, being then the third officer of the regi-.
ment, which had been reduced by yellow fever
from twelve hundred to one hundred and thirty,
58 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
he obtained leave for six months to visit his father,
who had come to America at the outbreak of the
French Revolution. With twenty-four other noble-
men he had agreed to buy forty thousand acres
of land on the Scioto River, Ohio, paying half the
purchase-money to Joel Barlow and William Play-
fair, agents in Paris of Colonel William Duer, ac-
credited by a letter from Thomas Jefferson. Count
de Barth sailed with three hundred emigrants, landed
in Alexandria, Virginia, in March, 1790, and then
proceeded to Marietta, Ohio, where he found that
Duer had become a bankrupt. He returned to Phil-
adelphia, purchased a country-seat, Springettsbury
Manor, Bush Hill, a mansion with sixty acres, but
he died there September 24, 1793, and was buried
in St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church in Philadel-
phia. Bush Hill was occupied as a hospital during
the yellow fever, and as there was no one author-
ized to make the last payment, it was sold by the
sheriff and passed from the family. In 1798 Colonel,
then Major, Walbach, on his arrival, retained Messrs.
William Rawle, Jared Ingersoll, and James Heatly,
but owing to the loss of documents could obtain no
redress. Major Walbach then resigned his com-
mission as major in the Hussars of Rohan and
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
became an adopted citizen of the United States.
In the autumn of 1798 he entered the army of the
United States on the invitation of Washington,
Hamilton, and McHenry, as second lieutenant of
cavalry, and was appointed adjutant of a cavalry
regiment, holding that post until the corps was
disbanded in June, 1/99. He then was employed
in the office of the Adjutant- General of the United
States, General William North, who had been aid
to General Steuben. In December, 1799, he was
employed to assist General Charles C. Pinckney in
preparing regulations for the cavalry, and later to
assist General Hamilton in preparing regulations
for the artillery, and afterwards he was ordered to
report to General Washington, to take charge of
a detachment of dragoons. He was appointed, in
1801, first lieutenant in the First Regiment of Ar-
tillery and Engineers, and in 1802 aid to General
Wilkinson; in 1804, adjutant of artillery and mili-
tary agent at Fort Constitution, New Hampshire; in
1806, captain of artillery; in 1812, assistant deputy
quartermaster; in 1813, assistant adjutant-general
with the rank of major, and assistant adjutant-
general with the rank of colonel, and brevet major,
for gallant conduct at the battle of Chrystler's Fields;
6Q THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
in 1815, major of artillery and brevet lieutenant-
colonel; in 1830, brevet colonel for ten years' further
service, and lieutenant-colonel in the First Regiment
of Artillery; in 1842, colonel of the Fourth Regi-
ment of Artillery, and made commander at Fortress
Monroe and brevet brigadier-general; and in 1851
he was assigned to the command of the Depart-
ment of the East. He died in Baltimore, Maryland,
on the loth of June, 1857, f disease contracted in
the war of 1812. A highly commendatory order was
issued by General Scott, lieutenant-general com-
manding at the time of his death, reciting his long
military career, his distinguished services, and his
unwavering integrity, truth, and honor, strict atten-
tion to duty, and zeal for the service, tempering
the administration of an exact discipline by the
most elevated courtesies. General George W. Cul-
lum, in his " Campaigns and Engineers of the War
of 1812-15," at page 168, credits him with saving the
artillery at Chrystler's Fields in 1813. His grand-
son, John de Barth Walbach Gardiner, is an assist-
ant surgeon in the United States army. His son,
L. de B. Walbach, who died in 1853, was a graduate
of West Point and a captain of ordnance. Another
son died an officer of the United States navy.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. gj
General Walbach is well remembered by old offi-
cers of the regular army as a fine soldierly charac-
ter, full of zeal and pride in his profession, and a
man of many manly virtues and attractive qualities.
His brother was a Roman Catholic priest in Balti-
more, and in their old age these two men, living
together, were typical examples of the professions
of war and peace.*
Among the early graduates of West Point, a not-
able example of the way in which Germany has sup-
plied our army with officers is the case of Julius F.
Heileman, son of the surgeon of Riedesel's German
Brigade in Burgoyne's army; he was appointed a
cadet in 1803, and rose to be major of the Second
Artillery, when he fell in Florida, in 1836.
George Nauman was a graduate of West Point in
1823, who rose by slow but good service, and died as
lieutenant-colonel of the First Artillery in Philadel-
phia in 1863. He was born in Pennsylvania sixty
*The battle of Leipsic, the turning-point of the uprising of Ger-
many against Napoleon, was celebrated in Philadelphia by German
citizens, with toasts in honor of the Emperor of Russia, the burning
of Moscow, Bliicher, the German Princes, and the Patriots of South
62 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
General Ammen, who was distinguished during the
Rebellion, was a native of Virginia, a graduate of
West Point in 1831, had resigned to engage in teach-
ing and engineering, and, when the war broke out,
re-entered the service as colonel of the Twenty-
fourth Ohio; as a brigadier-general, he served with
great bravery in the West.
Edmund Schriver and Alexander Shiras were grad-
uates of 1833, and both were born in Pennsylvania.
Their services in the Rebellion were highly appre-
Herman Haupt, a graduate of 1835, was born in
Philadelphia, and, besides his services in the field, has
been a pioneer in the great business of railroad build-
ing across the continent. His son graduated in 1867.
Luther and Roland and Hagner, all of the class of
1836, bore good Pennsylvania German names.
The Muhlenbergs have had a representative, and
often more than one, in the regular army since the
time of the early Pennsylvania soldier down to our
own day, and all have done honor to a name that is
looked, on as one fittingly chosen as the type of the
Pennsylvania soldier and statesman. The Muhlen-
bergs, six at least, fill an honored place on the regis-
ters of the regular army, in which they have a right
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 63
by descent from patriot ancestors of the Revolu-
General S. P. Heintzelman, a veteran of the regular
army, was born in Lancaster County in 1805. His
grandfather, a native of Augsburg, was the first white
settler in Manheim, where his grandson was educated
until he went to West Point in 1826. He was pro-
moted and brevetted for his gallantry in the Mexican
war, and at the outbreak of the Rebellion became
colonel of the Seventeenth United States Infantry.
At Bull Run he was wounded ; on the Peninsula he
commanded a corps, and throughout the war he was
always on duty.
Francis Lieber was born in Berlin in 1800; he
grew up in the midst of the earnest aspirations of
Germany for freedom from the French yoke, and at
the age of fifteen, following the example of his elder
brothers, and with the approval of his parents, en-
listed in the Colberg Regiment under Bliicher. He
began his short experience of war at Ligny, was
wounded, and returned after the campaign of Water-
loo to resume his work as a school-boy. With the
other young Turners, he followed Jahn in his plan for
political as well as physical regeneration, and with
his leader he was imprisoned for excess of patriotism.
64 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
His four months' confinement was not in itself a
great hardship, but it carried with it a prohibition to
study in any Prussian university, and this implied his
exclusion from public employment. He studied at
Jena, Halle, and Dresden, and then at twenty-one
took part in the Greek struggle, with very unsatis-
Then, encouraged by Niebuhr, in whose family he
had been employed in Rome, he returned to Berlin,
only to be again imprisoned, an enforced idleness
which he used in the composition of a volume of
poems of the merriest kind ; after trying in vain to
secure a stable position, he freed himself from the un-
comfortable results of his early patriotism by coming
to America, where he arrived in 1827. He estab-
lished a swimming-school in Boston after the model
of those of Germany, but soon undertook a very
great work, the preparation of the " Encyclopaedia
Americana," based on Brockhaus's " Conversations
Lexicon," published in Philadelphia, which then be-
came the scene of his active literary labors. He pre-
pared an elaborate scheme for the management of
Girard College, and began his independent author-
ship. He went to the University of South Carolina,
in 1835, as Professor of History and Political Econ-
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 65
omy. There he wrote and taught until 1857, when
he gladly left the South.
When the Rebellion broke out he was quietly
settled at Columbia College in New York, but one
of his sons went into the Confederate service, another
with the Illinois troops into the Union army, and a
third got a commission in the regular army, and he
himself began his work as legal adviser to the govern-
ment on questions of military and international law
by preparing a code of instructions for the govern-
ment of armies of the United States in the field, and
from that time on he was in constant employment in
that direction, putting his vast store of learning at
the disposition of the authorities on every fitting
occasion. He maintained a close correspondence
with the leading German professors Bluntschli, Mohl,
Holtzendorff, and did much to secure in Germany a
proper appreciation of the great work done for the
world by securing the perpetuation of the American
Union, and later on to make America alive to the
merits of the great struggle with France which se-
cured German unity. His busy life ended in 1872,
and his best epitaph was his own favorite motto,
" Patria Cara, Carior Libertas, Veritas Carissima," for
Country, Liberty, and Truth, were the great aims
66 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
in all he wrote and spoke and thought. His ser-
vices were of a kind not often within the reach and
range of a single life, and his memory deserves to
be honored and kept green in both his native and
his adopted country. He was well represented in
the Union cause by his two sons, Hamilton, who
served in the Ninety-second Illinois, and died in
1876, an officer of the regular army, and Guido,
still in the regular service, through whom his name
is perpetuated in the army register, while the death
of another son on the Confederate side was another
sacrifice to the cause of the Union.
His " Instructions for Armies in the Field," Gen-
eral Order No. 100, published by the Government of
the United States, April 24, 1863, were the first codi-
fication of international articles of war, and marked
an epoch in the history of international law and of
civilization. His other contributions to military and
to international law, published at various times during
the civil war, together with his other miscellaneous
writings on political science, have been reprinted in
the two volumes of his works issued by J. B. Lippin-
cott & Co., in 1 88 1, and these, with his memoirs and
the tributes paid him by President Gilman and Judge
Thayer, are his best monument. A memoir by T. S.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 67
Perry well deserves attention, and the German trans-
lation, edited by Holtzendorff, shows ^Lieber's popu-
larity in Germany.
General August V. Kautz was born in Baden in
1828, and came as a lad to this country, where his
family settled in Ohio. At the outbreak of the
Mexican war he enlisted in the First Ohio Regi-
ment, and was rewarded for his services by being
appointed a lieutenant in the regular army. He was
captain of cavalry at the outbreak of the Rebellion,
commanded his regiment, the Sixth Cavalry, under
McClellan, in the operations before Richmond, was
appointed colonel of the Second Ohio Cavalry and
chief of cavalry of the Twenty-third Corps, and
brevetted major-general in both the volunteer and
regular service. He became lieutenant-colonel of
the Fifteenth Infantry after the war, is now colonel
of the Eighth Infantry, and is the author of some
excellent works on various subjects of military
Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Mordecai, of the
Ordnance Department of the United States army, is a
graduate of West Point, of the class of June, 1861,
and is now major of his corps. His scientific ser-
vices have been recognized both in and out of the
68 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
army. He is the son of a distinguished officer of the
regular army, Major A. Mordecai, of the class of
1823, whose military record was a very brilliant one;
his name is familiar as the author, with General
McClellan and General Delafield, of an admirable
report of their visit to Europe and to the Crimea
during the Russian war of 1854. His grandfather
was a German. Father and son have both con-
tributed to the science of their branch of the mili-
tary profession, ordnance; and the elder, Major
Mordecai, gave the first impulse to Professor
Henry's application of electricity to ballistics,
the art of measuring the velocity of projectiles,
now become a matter of every-day use in all arse-
nals throughout the world.
General George A. Custer, one of the most pictu-
resque characters of the war and an exceptional
soldier in his Indian campaigns, was the great-
grandson of an officer of the Hessian soldiers sent
here to serve in the British army during the Revo-
lution. His ancestor, paroled in 1778, after Bur-
goyne's surrender, settled in Pennsylvania, married
there, changed his German name, " Kiister," to one
easier to pronounce in English, and moved to Mary-
land, where the father of General Custer was born
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. go,
in 1806. His famous son was born in Ohio, in
1839, as a boy taught school in his. native village,
Hopedale, until 1857, when he was appointed a cadet
at West Point. Graduating there in June, 1861,
he was assigned to the Second Cavalry, served with
distinction, was made a captain on the staff of Gen-
eral McClellan, served with General Kearney and
General Pleasonton, was appointed a brigadier-gen-
eral for his gallantry at the battle of Aldie, and
commanded, successively, a brigade and a division
of cavalry, which he led with distinguished bravery.
He was promoted to be a major-general of volun-
teers, a brevet major-general of the United States
army, and lieutenant-colonel of the Seventh Cav-
alry, served under General Hancock in a series of
campaigns against the Indians, and finally fell in
battle with the Sioux. He was the author of many
capital contributions to the periodical literature after
the civil war, and his memory is preserved in his
wife's charming little book, " Military Life on the
Frontiers," and in the " Life of General Custer," by
F. Whittaker, published shortly after his heroic death
in June, 1876.
Lieutenant John T. Greble, of the Second Ar-
tillery, a graduate of West Point, of the class of
70 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
1854, is well remembered as the first officer of the
regular army to fall in the war of the Rebellion.
Born in Philadelphia in 1834, he was killed in ac-
tion, at Big Bethel, Virginia, on the roth of June,
1861. He was one of the most popular officers in
the service, distinguished alike for gallantry and
attainments. He, too, was of German descent, and
the traditions of the family were all patriotic. His
great-grandfather, Andrew Greble, a native of Saxe-
Gotha, came to this country in 1742, settled per-
manently in Philadelphia, and enlisted warmly in
the cause of the war of Independence. He and his
four sons joined the American army, and fought at
the battles of Princeton and Monmouth. Two of
his ancestors on his mother's side, good Welsh
Quakers, were in the Continental army. A gradu-
ate of the Philadelphia High School, he showed at
West Point and in the army a love of study, which,
with his amiable manners and soldierly conduct,
secured him the friendship of all with whom he
was brought in contact. After serving in Florida,
he was appointed to the corps of instructors at West
Point, and was on duty at Fortress Monroe when
the civil war broke out. His untimely death was
due to his deliberate purpose to sacrifice his life to
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. ^
save the lives of the large body of soldiers imper-
illed by an overwhelming force. His heroism had
its reward in the gratitude with which his memory
is cherished both in the army and by the people.
His son, Lieutenant Edwin St. John Greble, a grad-
uate of the class of 1881, is now serving with the
Second United States Artillery.
William Heine was born in 1827, died in Dres-
den, his native city, in October, 1885. He learned
landscape and architectural painting in Paris, and
was employed as a painter at the Dresden Court
Theatre, but, after the revolution of 1848 in Sax-
ony, came to the United States in 1851; he trav-
elled in Central America, which he described in
" Wanderbilder aus Centralamerika," Leipzig, 1853.
He subsequently joined Perry's expedition to Japan,
and, in 1860, the Prussian expedition to the same
country, describing it in his "Japan, Beitrage zur
Kentniss des Landes u.s. Bewohner," Dresden, 1870.
After the outbreak of the American civil war, he
entered the Union army as captain of engineers ;
advanced to the rank of brigadier, March, 1865 ;
was afterwards employed in the United States con-
sular service, and returned to his native land in
72 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
The Germans served in large numbers in cavalry
and artillery companies of volunteers in the Mexican
war, notably from Texas and Missouri, and many of
them gained distinction in this service. Kentucky
had its infantry regiment and its cavalry company of
Germans in the Mexican war, and many Germans in
its loyal regiments during the Rebellion, notably
Companies E and G of the Fourth Cavalry, and
Earth's company of the Twenty-eighth Kentucky
Volunteers. Among the Germans whose services in
Texas ought not to be forgotten is the once familiar
name of William Langenheim ; and of his associates,
Gustavus Schleicher in Texas and J. A. Wagener
in South Carolina served in the Confederate army.
New Orleans and Louisiana had among their leading
Union men two representative Germans, Christian
Roselius and Michael Hahn.
General Godfrey Weitzel was born in Germany in
1835, and came with his parents to this country as a
child, was appointed a cadet at West Point in his
seventeenth year, and in 1855 graduated as a lieu-
tenant of engineers. He served with Butler and
Banks in the South, and led a division under Grant
in the final conquest of Richmond. After the
war he was constantly employed in his profession,
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
until his untimely death in Philadelphia, March 19,
Colonel Alexander von Schrader, born in Ger-
many, a soldier by training, was lieutenant-colonel
of the Seventy-fourth Ohio, and became a major in
the Thirty-ninth Infantry of the regular army, dying
in service August 6, 1867. He had been reduced
to the direst poverty before the war, but when the
occasion came his distinguished gallantry and effi-
cient military training stood him in good stead.
Henry A. Hambright, retired as major Nine-
teenth United States Infantry, brevet colonel United
States army, brevet brigadier-general United States
volunteers, was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania,
March 24, 1819. His father, Frederick, a major-
general of militia, and his uncle, George, a colonel,
both served in the war of 1812. Colonel Ham-
bright served in the Mexican war, in the war of the
Rebellion as an officer of the Second Pennsylvania
Volunteers, in the First Pennsylvania (three months)
Volunteers, and as colonel of the Seventy-ninth
Pennsylvania ; while still in the three months' service
he was commissioned captain of the Eleventh United
States Infantry, and served with distinguished gal-
lantry through the war, and with great fidelity until
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
he was retired for disability incurred in the line of
A study of the register of officers of the regular
army from 1779 shows a large proportion of Ger-
mans, beginning with Kalb and Steuben, in the
German Battalion of Pennsylvania and Maryland,
the artillery and engineer and other staff corps en-
gaged in the wars of 1812 and 1846. During the
Rebellion many old soldiers of German birth were re-
warded by commissions, and not a few distinguished
German volunteers were also appointed in the reg-
ular army, among them Blucher, Von Hermann,
Luettwitz, Michalowski, Von Schirach.
There were two million six hundred and ninety
thousand men engaged in the army and navy during
the Rebellion, beside seventy-two thousand emer-
gency men called out for short periods of service.
The Count of Paris, in his exhaustive history of the
war, says that of the volunteers who enlisted during
the first year only one-tenth were foreigners ; of the
remainder, two-thirds were born on American soil
and less than one-fourth were naturalized Europeans.
In 1864, when conscription was partially resorted to,
eighty per cent, were natives. This army, more than
two-thirds natives and less than one-third foreigners,
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
was raised out of a population of nineteen millions.
Far more than one-third of the effective male popu-
lation were of European birth, yet in the army there
was less than that proportion in the ranks.
The Confederacy at the time of the battle of Bull
Run had about two hundred thousand men under
arms. When the North called for five hundred
thousand men, the South called for four hundred
thousand. In 1862 the South had about one hun-
dred and eighty thousand men in the field ; in April
of that year the Confederate Congress ordered, not
a draft as in the past, but a levy en masse of all
white males between eighteen and thirty-five, resid-
ing within the Confederacy, for three years or the
war, divided into sixteen classes. Based on a popu-
lation of five million whites, this should have pro-
duced eight hundred thousand men, it did give
between four and five hundred thousand effective
men. In September, 1862, the limit of age was ex-
tended to forty-five, and the other limit was made
to include all who had completed their seventeenth
year since April.
In the Confederate army there were many Ger-
mans, and much of the literature of the war on the
part of the South is made up of the records of those
76 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
who served on that side, notable among them Heros
von Borcke, and he speaks in his Munchausen-like
book of finding among the riflemen an old Prus-
sian soldier from Texas, of meeting at Lee's head-
quarters Captain Scheibert, of the Prussian engineers,
detailed as an observer, but taking an active part as
a combatant, and the author of a book, " Sieben
Monate in den Rebellen Staaten," published in Stet-
tin in 1868, characterized by its strong Southern
tone.* Then there is the book of another German
*In McClellan's admirable life of General J. E. B. Stuart, there is
a paper signed by that distinguished officer under date of June 17,
1862, in which he says,
" M. Heros von Borcke, a Prussian cavalry officer, has shown him-
self a thorough soldier and a splendid officer. I hope the [War]
Department will confer as high a commission as possible on this
deserving man, who has cast in his lot with us in this trying hour."
At page 307, we find that on the igth of August, 1863, Major
Heros von Borcke, an officer of the Prussian army, who was serving
on General Stuart's staff, received a severe wound, which disabled
him from further service, (p. 307.)
In the Southern Bivouac Magazine, for February, 1886, published
at Louisville, Kentucky, it is mentioned at page 515 that the distin-
guished Colonel Von Borcke, Stuart's chief-of-staff, lately revisited
Fauquier County, Virginia, staying near Upperville, on the northern
border; his once robust constitution much affected by the ball he
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
soldier of fortune, B. Estvan, whose " Kriegsbilder
aus Amerika" appeared in Leipsic in 1864, as it
had already been published in England and in New
York in English in 1863. Fritz Annecke, a soldier
in the West, published a work on " Der zweite
Freiheitskrieg," in Frankfort in 1861, H. Blanken-
burg another coming down to the Presidential elec-
tion in 1868 (Leipsic, 1869); August Conrad " Schat-
still carries in his right lung, received when he was wounded in 1863 ;
but his jovial, impulsive, warm-hearted nature has not forsaken him.
Colonel von Borcke served on the staff of Prince Frederic Charles,
in the war of 1866, but his old wounds forced him to retire.
Captain Scheibert's interest in the Southern cause did not end with
the war; on returning to Germany, where he became major in the
Prussian Engineers, he corresponded with the editor of the Southern
Historical Society's Papers. In vol. v., p. 90, his letter on Gettys-
burg, dated Stuttgart, November 21, 1879, is printed, and in vol. iv.,
p. 88, there is a notice by Colonel Venables, C.S.A., of a transla-
tion of Scheibert's book into French, by Captain Bonnecque, of
the French Engineers. In 1883, Major Scheibert published a Ger-
man translation of Allan's " History of the Valley Campaign;" and in
a letter of October 13, 1881, dated at Hirshberg, Silesia, Prussia, he
says he has translated and printed in German, Early's " Gettysburg,"
Stuart's and Lee's " Reports," Hubbard's " Chancellorsville," Patton's
"Jackson," McClellan's "Jeb Stuart," Stuart's "Gettysburg," and
biographies of Lee, Jackson, Stuart, and Mosby. His " Burgerkrieg
in den Vereinigten Staaten" has been translated into French and
78 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
ten und Lichtbilder aus dem amerikanischen Leben
wahrend des Secessionskrieges" (Hannover, 1879);
Riistow, a recognized authority on war, a history
of the war, from a purely military point of view.
Mangold wrote " Der Feldzug in Neu Virginien in
August, 1862" (Hannover, 1881), which has received
high praise, Constantin Sander, a history of the
war, first down to 1862, and then a later and more
complete volume, the former published in Frankfort in
1863, the second in 1865. "Von Achten der Letzte"
is a German novel on the Southern side published
in Wiesbaden in 1871. Much that is of interest
on the subject is to be found in the volume, " In
der neuen Heimath, Geschichtliche Mittheilungen
iiber die Deutschen Einwanderer in alien Theilen
der Union, herausgegeben von Anton Eickhoff."
2te Ausgabe, N. Y., Steiger, 1885, 8vo, pp. 398.
Of translations and newspaper magazine articles
in German, the number is almost endless. Many
Southern citizens living abroad tried to reach the
German public by arguments and appeals, but the
fact remains that the great mass of the German
people were from first to last unshaken in their
faith in the success of the Union, and they profited
largely by the faith which led them to make in-
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
vestments in American bonds and securities at a
time of general doubt.
In North Carolina there was a goodly number of
Germans and of the descendants of the early Ger-
man settlers in the Confederate service. In Wil-
mington, North Carolina, at the commencement of
the war, a company was raised under the name of
the German Volunteers, afterwards Company A,
Eighteenth Regiment North Carolina troops. The
officers were, C. Cornehlsen, Captain ; H. Vollers,
First Lieutenant; G. H. W. Runge, Second Lieu-
tenant ; E. Schulken, Third Lieutenant. There were
seventy-five men rank and file, all Germans, in this
organization, while in other branches of the service,
artillery and cavalry, as well as in the Confederate
States navy, there were Germans, so that North
Carolina had a fair share of them in its volunteers.
South Carolina was not without its German sol-
diers. Indeed, as early as 1670, the first German
that set foot in Carolina, John Lederer, made a tour
of exploration under the direction of Governor Wil-
liam Berkeley, of Virginia ; he was a man of learn-
ing; his journal was written in Latin, and the trans-
lator, Sir William Talbot, Governor of Maryland,
speaks highly of his literary attainments. The ac-
gO THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
count of this journey was published and circulated,
and doubtless had its effect in the settling of Caro-
lina, for it is certain that in 1680 German immigration
had fairly set in. In 1764 six hundred Palatines
arrived in South Carolina. In 1766 the German
Friendly Society was founded in Charleston, and as
early as 1686 the German Lutherans were included
among the leading elements of the population. Be-
tween 1730 and 1750 a great addition was made
from Switzerland and Germany, and the dreadful
war that scourged the peaceful inhabitants for so
many years drove thousands to America, and of
these many came to Carolina. Of course in the
Confederacy, and especially in its army from South
Carolina and in the defence of Charleston, there were
many Germans ; thus in the force that took posses-
sion of Fort Moultrie in April, 1861, there was the
German Artillery, Captain C. Nohrden ; and among
the troops furnished by the city of Charleston to the
Southern army, in the roster printed in Courtenay's
History of Charleston, are the following German or-
ganizations, viz. :
Fourth Brigade South Carolina Militia: Ger-
man Riflemen, Captain J. Small; Palmetto Rifle-
men, Captain A. Melchers.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. gl
Seventeenth Infantry, German Fusileers, Captain
S. Lord, Jr.
First Regiment of Artillery, Major John A. Wag-
ener (a veteran of the war with Mexico, a member of
Company F, the Charleston company of the South
German Artillery, Company A, Captain C. Nohr-
den ; German Artillery, Company B, Captain H.
Cavalry, German Hussars, Captain Theodore
Marion Rifles, a volunteer corps of the fire depart-
ment, Captain C. B. Sigwald.
At the commencement of the war of the Rebel-
lion, the Germans of Charleston, South Carolina,
took an active share in the war, for they considered
that their homes were assailed by the North, and they
volunteered freely for the war, furnishing about four
hundred men. The German Artillery, Companies
A and B, were militia organizations, under command
of Major John A. Wagener. These two companies
served from the outset until the war ended. The
two companies were under the respective command
of Captains A. Nohrden and H. Harms. After
the battle of Hilton Head, November 7, 1861, Major
8 2 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Wagener took command of the Home Guards in
Charleston, and the commander of Company A was
Captain D. Werner ; of Company B, Captain Franz
Melchers, who served during the rest of the war.
The command was reorganized after the war as one
company, under Captain F. W. Wagener, who had
served during the war after Captain Werner's resig-
nation. The German Hussars, also a militia com-
pany, volunteered for the war under Captain Theo-
dore Cordes; on his death, Captain Fremder took
command, and after his death, Captain Hanke Wohl-
ken served during the war. The German Volunteers
were a company of young men under Captain W. K.
Bachman ; they volunteered for and served through-
out the war. All of them declared their allegiance to
the home they had chosen voluntarily and shared the
fate of the people who had received them kindly,
while they hardly bothered their heads about the
cause of the war. They were merchants, clerks,
artisans, etc., and many of them have passed away
during or since the war. Captain F. Melchers still
survives, for forty years a resident of Charleston,
and for thirty-three years publisher of the Deutsche
Zeitung, except during the four years of the war,
when he served as lieutenant and as captain, and as
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 83
lieutenant-colonel on the staff of General Wade
Hampton. Captain F. W. Wagener and Captain
Hanke Wohlken are merchants, Captain W. R.
Bachman a lawyer, and Professor *C. H. Bergmann,
of the German School, was a volunteer and orderly
sergeant in Bachman's company during the war.
The survivors are about to erect a monument to
their fallen comrades, and the Germans of Charleston
have contributed a handsome sum for the purpose.
The Charleston companies in the armies of the
Confederate States for the war (1861-65) included
in Courtenay's roster :
Three companies of German artillery.
Light Battery B,* Hampton Legion, Captain W.
Light Battery A, Captain F. W. Wagener.
Light Battery B, Captain F. Melchers.
Marion Rifles, Company A, Twenty-fourth Regi-
ment South Carolina Volunteers, Captain C. B.
* This company, called the German Volunteers, was raised by
the German citizens of Charleston, mustered into service for the
war as an infantry company, and subsequently transferred to the
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
German Hussars, Troop G, Third Regiment
South Carolina Cavalry, Captain Theodore Cordes.
In Texas many Germans served in the Confed-
erate army. In Walker's Texas Division, the Third
Texas Volunteer Infantry Regiment had Company
B, Captain Biesenbuch, Lieutenants Koening and
Uhl ; Company F, Captain Rosenheimer, Lieuten-
ants Ztuni and Hafner; Company G, Captain Sher-
hagen ; Company K, Captain Bosi, Lieutenants Sara-
sin and Schleuning. In the Sixteenth Texas, Colonel
Flournoy, Company E, Captain G. T. Marold, Lieu-
tenants Klaedon, Hanke, and Groff; Company H,
of the Seventeenth, Captain Sabath, Lieutenant Koll-
mauer, were all Germans.
In the First Virginia Infantry, Company K had
Lieutenants C. Bauman, B. Bergmeier, and A. Bitzel
(see its history by Charles Loehr).
The Louisiana militia organizations at the outset
of the Rebellion included the New Orleans Jagers,
Captain Peters, Lieutenants Fassbinder and Huth;
the Sharpshooters, Captain Christern ; the Fusileers,
Captain Sievers, Lieutenants Gerdes and Walbrack ;
the La Fayette Guards, Captain Koenig, Lieutenants
Hollenback and Fridebach ; the Jefferson Guards,
Captain Wollrath, Lieutenant Lehman ; Reichard's
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 85
Battalion ; Turner Guards, Captain Bahncke, Lieu-
tenants Von Armlinsen, Eicholz, Schneider; Steuben
Guards, Captain Burger, Lieutenants Kehrwald,
Rosenbaum, Hausner ; Reichard Rifles, Captain
Reitmeyer, Lieutenants Weise, De Petz, Muller;
Louisiana Volunteers, Captain Ruhl, Lieutenants
Von Zincken, Barrel ; Black Jagers, Captain Roben-
horst ; Florence Guards, Captain Brummenstadt,
Lieutenants Lachenmeyer, Wassernagel, Warburg.
Bachman's was one of the batteries of the Wash-
ington Artillery of New Orleans, and the Tenth
Louisiana was commanded by Colonel Waggaman.
In Georgia, among the troops engaged in defence
of Fort Pulaski were the German Volunteers, Cap-
tain John H. Stegin, one of the companies of the
First Volunteer Regiment of Georgia.
The register of the Confederate States army contains
the following German names : Colonels J. T. Holtz-
claw, Eighteenth Alabama, Brigadier-General ; A. H.
Helvenstein, Sixteenth Alabama ; E. Waggaman,
Tenth Louisiana ; L. C. Gause, Thirty-second Ar-
kansas; Major W. O. Yager, Third Texas Cavalry;
Captain R. M. Cans, Fourth Texas Cavalry ; Colonel
J. N. Adenbousch, Second Virginia Infantry ; Colonel
J. N. Waul, Tenth Texas, Brigadier-General ; Captain
86 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
F. C. Schulz, Chestnut Artillery, South Carolina ;
Captain C. R. Hanleiter, Jr., Thompson's Artillery,
Georgia; J. A. Englehard, Major and Assistant Ad-
jutant-General, Fender's Light Division, Third Corps;
R. W. Memminger, Assistant Adjutant-General and
Chief of Staff, .Department of Mississippi and East
Gustav Schleicher was the first German in Con-
gress, who there won reputation as a representative
of the Germans of the United States. Born in
Darmstadt in 1823, he studied at Giessen, became
a successful civil engineer, emigrated to Texas in
1847, established himself finally in San Antonio,
served, successively, in both branches of the Texas
Legislature, was lieutenant-colonel and colonel of
the Texas Rangers in the Confederate army, and
was elected to the United States Congress in 1874
as a German Democrat. He showed marked ability,
thorough training, and conscientious study. Re-
elected twice to Congress, his premature death in
1879 cut short a career which gave promise of honor
to himself and usefulness to his adopted country.
The statistics of nativity of the population of the
States at the time of the Rebellion are not to be
absolutely ascertained. I find in " Freiheit u. Skla-
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. g/
verei unter dem Sternenbanner, oder Land u. Leute
in Amerika," by Theodore Griesinger, Stuttgart,
1862, the statement that in Pennsylvania there were
then over a million of German birth and descent;
in New York, 800,000; in Ohio, 600,000; in New
Jersey, 125,000; in New England/ 30,000; while
there were in the Southern States, in Virginia,
250,000; in Maryland, 125,000; in Missouri, over
100,000; in Louisiana, 50,000; in Texas, 30,000; in
Tennessee, 50,000 ; in North Carolina and Kentucky,
70,000; in Delaware, 25,000; in South Carolina,
20,000; in the cotton States, Georgia, Alabama,
Mississippi, and Arkansas, 10,000; in Florida, 5000.
There is no estimate of the number in the North-
west, that vast region from which came the volun-
teers of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, and
Iowa. Of course the Germans of Missouri sup-
plied large numbers of soldiers, some of them of
great distinction, and many Germans from other
States went to Missouri, as that was almost the
first seat of active operations, and Fremont and
Sigel and Asboth attracted Germans from all quar-
ters, just as in the East, German regiments were
asking to join Blenker's brigade until it became
a division, and others were ready to swell the di-
88 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
vision to a corps. Indeed, it was from Blenker's
demand to lead it that McClellan was obliged to
administer a reproof which led finally to his resig-
nation from active service.
The only attempt at an official analysis of the
nativity of the soldiers of the Union army is that
found in a volume of medical statistics published
in a final report of the Provost-Marshal General,
General James B. Fry, U.S.A., in which it is stated
that out of 343,764 drafted men there were from
Wurtemberg, I ; Austria, 67 ; Prussia, 754 ; Bavaria,
35; Saxony, 15; Germany, 35,935; Switzerland,
1158; total, 37,965; but in another place it is said
that there were of German birth 54,944 soldiers
drafted in the service. In the same report it is said
that during the Mexican war thirty per cent, of the
American army were of foreign birth, and that this
proportion held good of the volunteers during the
Rebellion, but that in times of peace the propor-
tions were reversed, seventy per cent, of the recruits
being of foreign birth. It is also stated that twenty-
four nationalities were represented in the United
States army, and that out of a total of a million
two hundred and fifty thousand men actually in the
war, there were seventy-five thousand Germans.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
This is certainly very far short of the actual number,
and is by no means borne out as accurate even by
the estimates made by the very competent authority
of the statistician employed by the United States
Sanitary Commission, Dr. B. A. Gould, whose tables
are based upon very careful mathematical data, and
come as near the truth as can be expected in the
absence of absolute returns.
The United States Sanitary Commission, in addi-
tion to its other good work, has published " Investi-
gations in the Statistics of American Soldiers," by
B. A. Gould (New York, 1869), of which one chapter
is devoted to the nativity of the United States Volun-
teers (chap, ii., pp. 15-26). It gives a suggestive list
of the arrivals of aliens in the United States, as fol-
Thirty in each hundred alien passengers before
1 86 1, and thirty-three in each hundred during the
war, were males of military age, and the total for
QO ' THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
the years of the war may be placed at two hundred
and twenty-nine thousand five hundred and thirty-
It was not until the war had been waged for some
time that the place of birth was systematically re-
quired on the enlistment rolls ; the actual records
are therefore very imperfect, and as many men en-
listed at different times for different periods, in one
instance five times, even regimental statistics are
misleading. It was not until the organization of
the provost-marshal-general's office that nativity
was made an essential element of the history of
each soldier. Out of the two and a half million of
men in the army, the nativities of about one million
two hundred thousand have been collected for Dr.
Gould's work from the records at the national and
State capitals, of about two hundred and ninety-three
thousand from regimental officers. In Missouri it
was estimated that there were ten thousand re-enlist-
ments among the German population ; but making
due allowance for these, the Sanitary Commission
gives the following table of Germans, volunteers in
the different regiments from the States, and in the
parallel column that of the proportion the Germans
would have borne to the native and other nationalities
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. ' gi
in the populations of each State ; and I have added
the German population from the census of 1860 in
another column :
- Number of Proportion to Total German
German Soldiers, whole Population. cJJjKrffio
New Hampshire .
Rhode Island and Con-
New York .
New Jersey .
District of Columbia .
A grand total of . 187,858 128,102 1,118,402
p 2 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
And as against this there were
British Americans . . . . 22,695 53>53 2
English 38,250 45,5o8
Irish 139,052 144,221
Other foreigners .... 39,455 48,410
Foreigners not otherwise designated . 278 26,445
Adding to these native Americans 1,523,267,
makes a total of 2,018,200 soldiers whose nativity
is thus established, out of the 2,500,000 in the
Part of the unwritten history of the war for the
Union is the result of the firm stand the Germans
took in defence of their new Fatherland. In the
East, and still more in the West, before the Rebellion
the German element was hardly appreciated by the
mass of the people. With the outbreak of the war it
asserted itself, and won a place in the consideration
of their fellow-citizens that has been shown by their
recognition in its government, and, to a still greater
degree, in its social development. In the Southwest,
notably, the Southern element was antagonistic to
the Germans, their industry, their frugality, their
sobriety, their simple tastes, their love of family,
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
their pride in their homes, were all elements of a civ-
ilization unknown in that part of the country. When
the Germans answered the appeal to support and
defend the Union, their uprising was a surprise.
Politicians looked unkindly on their military organ-
izations, and were indisposed to- give them a place in
the army. The steadiness of Blenker's division at
Bull Run gave his German regiments a consideration
which stood them in good stead later on, when dis-
asters befell them at Chancellorsville and at Gettys-
burg. In the West, Sigel organized the German
regiments and helped to save Missouri to the Union.
The Germans who had been soldiers at home, but
were employed peacefully throughout the country, at
the first appeal to arms hurried to join their fellow-
countrymen, and many others joined them who had
recently come over here to seek their fortunes, and
not a few whose trade was war helped to swell the
strength of the German regiments. Asboth organ-
ized a cavalry brigade, which did good service to the
end. The Fourth (German) Missouri Cavalry was
one of his regiments, and although its colonel and
its adjutant were Americans, most of its officers and
all of its rank and file were Germans, old soldiers,
who soon showed their capacity to adapt the lessons
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
of their old military experience to the new problems
of the war in this country.
The scattered settlements of Germans throughout
Missouri made the strength of the Union men of that
State and kept it in its place. Encouraged in turn
by the success of their countrymen, large numbers
of new settlers followed their example, among them
many who had seen the future wealth of the country
even in a time of war, and that the desolating border
war which carries so much misery in its course.
Now throughout Western Missouri there are thriving
villages and prosperous towns, connected by a net-
work of well-tilled farms, where German is the uni-
versal element. To them the success of the Union
cause was the guarantee of their future prosperity,
and from their support it derived much of its best
Colonel Waring's attractive little book, "Whip and
Spur" (Boston, 1875), gives an admirable sketch of the
life in the Fourth Missouri Cavalry. Full of grace,
charming in tone and spirit, told with the true feeling
of a real soldier, it shows with much more vivid truth
than most professed histories the real inner life of a
cavalry regiment largely made up of old German
soldiers. From its lieutenant-colonel, Von Helmrich,
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
for twenty-eight years a cavalry soldier in Germany,
down to the Swiss trumpeter, all were imbued with
that military spirit which makes the typical German
soldier. Colonel Waring's story is one of rough
campaigns, of hurrying expeditions, of hair-breadth
'scapes, of a soldier's life in a border warfare, and it
will preserve the fame of the Fourth Missouri Cav-
alry when the dull records of many other regiments
have been forgotten. It is just such a book as will
serve to keep alive the best memories of the German
cavalrymen in the war for the Union in the West.
The German soldier of the West and Northwest at
once took his right place in the army, and won for
himself and his countrymen the respect and the affec-
tion and the confidence of his native-born fellow-citi-
zens. What was before a scanty permission has now
become a matter of right, and the German, as a factor
in both the political and social progress of the coun-
try, owes his place to what was done and won for it
in the war of the Rebellion. Many Germans no
doubt came over here as a sort of freebooters, at-
tracted by the high pay and the rapid promotion,
and all the advantages that a volunteer army enjoyed
over the great standing army of their native country.
Many of them settled here, when the war was over,
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
and became good and useful citizens, ready to do
their share in making their new homes prosperous
and happy. Thus, whatever their sacrifices, and they
were great in life and health, their reward has been
proportionately great, and the Germans throughout
the civilized world owe much of their present po-
sition, of the accepted greatness of the Empire, to the
devotion, freely offered, of their services to the United
States in its hour of trial, and to the example they
then gave of fidelity to their political principles.
The story of the German soldier in the Rebellion
is one of the characteristic features of that varying
struggle. In the outset in the East the enthusiasm
of the German population in their support of the
Union was heartily welcome. In Missouri, under
Sigel, it was their uprising that saved that State to
the Union, and from the Germans of Missouri and
the Northwest there came soldiers who won the day
against the disloyal government of the State. Fre-
mont rallied around him bodies of German troops of
a strange sort at first, but that later on in the war
became useful soldiers. In New York, Blenker
raised a regiment which soon swelled to a brigade,
and then to a division, and might have become
an army corps. Their steadiness in protecting the
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
retreat at the first Bull Run won for them general
applause. Their camp in front of Washington, during
the preparation that McClellan gave his raw troops,
was a scene of military displays in the fashion of
Germany, little known or appreciated by our work-
a-day army, but largely admired by spectators from
far and near.
The successive ill fortune of the German troops
under Sigel in the valley of Virginia, and under
Howard at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, was fully
atoned for by their share in the operations under
Sherman. From being overpraised at the outset
they were afterwards unjustly overblamed, and the
truth undoubtedly rested between the two extremes.
There were incompetent officers and inefficient
soldiers in their number in the outset, but these
were gradually weeded out, and in the end it can
fairly be said that the German soldiers in the Rebel-
lion contributed largely to the success that finally
crowned the war. To give a detailed account of so
large a number, scattered over such an extent of
country, would be impossible, but a few shining ex-
amples may serve the purpose.
In a pamphlet issued by the War Department in
1885, there is given the local designation of volun-
9 g THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
teer organizations in the United States army dur-
ing the war of the Rebellion, 1860-65, which is of
interest, as showing in part the nationality of
In New York:
Dickel's Mounted Rifles, Fourth New York
Blenker's Battery, Second Battery Light Artillery,
Steuben Regiment, Seventh New York Infantry.
First German Rifles, Eighth New York Infantry.
United Turner Rifles, Twentieth New York In-
First Astor Regiment, Twenty-ninth New York
Fifth German Rifles, Forty-fifth New York In-
Fremont Regiment, Forty-sixth New York In-
Sigel Rifles, or German Rangers, Fifty-second
New York Infantry.
Barney Rifles, or Schwartze Yager Regiment,
Fifty-fourth New York Infantry.
Steuben Rangers, Eighty-sixth New York Infantry.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. ^
In Pennsylvania :
First German Regiment, Seventy-fourth Pennsyl-
Second German Regiment, Seventy-fifth Pennsyl-
First German Regiment, Twenty-eighth Ohio In-
Second German Regiment, Thirty-seventh Ohio
Infantry, Colonel Siber.
Third German Regiment, Sixty-seventh Ohio In-
fantry, Colonel Burstenbinder.
First German Regiment, Thirty-second Indiana,
commanded, successively, by Willich, Von Trebra,
Hecker's Yager Regiment, Twenty-fourth Illinois.
First German Regiment, Ninth Wisconsin.
Second German Regiment, Twenty-sixth Wis-
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Bates's History of the Pennsylvania Regiments,
etc., in the Rebellion, is a huge work of five enor-
mous volumes, and from its endless pages there is
much material to be gathered bearing on the Ger-
man element in the war. Pennsylvania naturally
claims for its citizens of German descent, including
those whose ancestors were among the early settlers,
a place in any tribute to the German soldiers.
Among the first five companies organized in Penn-
sylvania at the very outset, there were many Penn-
sylvania Germans ; and of the twenty-five regiments
raised for the three months' service, there were the
Fourth, with Hartranft as its colonel, from Norris-
town and Pottstown ; the Eighth, from Lehigh and
Northampton ; the Ninth, from Chester and Dela-
ware, with Pennypacker ; the Tenth, from Lancaster ;
the Eleventh, from Northumberland ; the Fourteenth,
from Berks; the Fifteenth, from Luzerne; the Six-
teenth, from York and Schuylkill ; the Eighteenth,
in Philadelphia, under Wilhelm ; the Twenty-first,
under Ballier, largely made up of Germans.
Of the three-year regiments, those who bore the
brunt of the war, there was the Twenty-seventh,
which gained credit from and for Bushbeck ; while of
the fifteen regiments of the Pennsylvania Reserves,
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. IO i
the largest organized force, indeed the only division
sent by one State to the field, many of its members
were Germans by birth or descent, and so, too, of
the Forty-eighth, from Schuylkill ; the Fiftieth, from
Berks; the Fifty-first, under Hartranft, from Mont-
gomery ; the Fifty-sixth, under Hoffman ; the Sixty-
fifth, better known as the Fifth Cavalry ; the Seventy-
fourth, from Pittsburg; the Seventy-fifth, under Boh-
len ; the Seventy-ninth, from Lancaster ; the Eighty-
eighth, from Berks and Philadelphia, with General
Louis Wagner; the Ninety-sixth, from Schuylkill;
the Ninety-seventh, under Pennypacker, from Chester
and Delaware; the Ninety-eighth, the old Twenty-
first reorganized, under Ballier, thoroughly German
in rank and file; the One Hundred and Twelfth, or
Second Artillery, so large a regiment that out of it
a second regiment was organized; the One Hundred
and Thirteenth, or Twelfth Cavalry, and the One
Hundred and Fifty-second, or Third Artillery,
almost distinctively German. Then there were the
One Hundred and Thirtieth, from York ; the One
Hundred and Thirty-first, from Northumberland ;
and the One Hundred and Fifty-third, from North-
ampton, it was brigaded under Sigel, Stahel, and
Von Gilsa, with the New York regiments of Salm,
I0 2 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Holmstedt, and Von Amsberg, and the Eighty-
second Illinois, of Hecker, nothing could point
more conclusively to the German element in the war
than such names as these.
The One Hundred and Sixty-eighth Pennsylvania
Volunteers, from Berks, was organized and com-
manded by Charles A. Knoderer. .
This is a fair proportion of the two hundred and
fifteen regiments, nine batteries, two independent
companies, and eleven colored regiments raised in
Pennsylvania, and even a hasty glance at the long
list of names of officers and men of the successive
regiments will show a large German element scat-
tered throughout them. One of the best elements of
the little regular army was the supply of excellent
non-commissioned officers, largely old German sol-
diers, and it was a great stroke of good fortune when
a volunteer company had one of these well-trained
and well-disciplined men in its ranks, he steadied
the whole line, and gave it an example of soldierly
excellence in every particular.
Such a man was Edward Scherer, first sergeant of
Company B, of the One Hundred and Twenty-first
Pennsylvania Volunteers, a German who had served
in a battery of the Third United States Artillery,
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
under some of the most distinguished officers of the
regular army. Such men as Reynolds and Burnside
recognized him as an old comrade, and his bearing
and gallantry and knowledge of the real business
of soldiering were the object of universal admira-
tion among the green hands, both officers and men,
of his regiment.. He fell at the battle of Fred-
ericksburg, Virginia, and he was but a type of that
large number of German soldiers who served in the
ranks, and who, like Scherer, sacrificed good em-
ployment at home to do their duty to the country
of their adoption at its hour of supreme peril and
A characteristic and distinguished example of the
services rendered by our Pennsylvanians of German
descent is the brilliant career of General G. Penny-
packer, of the Ninth and the Ninety-seventh Penn-
sylvania Volunteers. Born in 1842, at Valley
Forge, he was one of the descendants of Heinrich
Pannebacker, who came to America from Germany
before 1699, and settled on Skippack Creek. Many
of this family settled in the adjoining counties of
Montgomery, Chester, and Berks, and of the later
generations not a few found their way into Vir-
ginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, where
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
their names are found in positions of importance and
On the rolls of those who served in the Revolu-
tion and the later wars of the Republic, there are
many representatives of this old German stock. The
Pennypacker war record is a notable one. During
the Revolution this family had as its representatives
in the Continental army, a captain, an ensign, a lieu-
tenant, a corporal, and a private. In the war of
1812 it had two of its members in the field; in the
Mexican war, three. In the war of the Rebellion
it furnished to the Union army two major-generals,
one adjutant-general, one colonel, one surgeon, one
assistant surgeon, two captains, one lieutenant, five
sergeants, eight corporals, one musician, and sixty-
five privates. To the Southern army it gave one
lieutenant-colonel, one quartermaster, four captains,
five lieutenants, and twenty-eight enlisted men, a
total of one hundred and twenty-eight. No doubt
this list could be increased if all branches of the old
stock reported their military contingent. At all
events it is worth pointing out, that others may try
to parallel it by a diligent search through their own
records for other examples of the kind. The great-
grandfather of General Pennypacker was a bishop of
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
the Mennonite Church ; his father was on the staff of
General Worth in the Mexican war. At the age of
eighteen, after he had begun life as a printer, young
Pennypacker became a member of a local volunteer
company, and marched with it to Harrisburg on the
first summons for troops in 1861, serving with it in
the Ninth Regiment. He soon became captain and
then major of the reorganized regiment in the three-
years' service, the Ninety-seventh, and bravely fought
his way through the war, became colonel of the regi-
ment, was soon put in command of a brigade, won his
star as a brigadier-general for his gallantry at the cap-
ture of Fort Fisher, at twenty-two was the youngest
general officer in the war, and was brevetted a major-
general. In 1866 he quietly settled down to study
law, when he was appointed colonel of the Thirty-
fourth Infantry in the regular army, then assigned to
the Sixteenth ; he was the youngest colonel in the
regular army, and finally retired in 1883 at an age
when with most men a career of distinction such as
his is usually just beginning.
Zinn, of the One Hundred and Thirtieth; Schall,
of the Fifty-first, one of eight brothers in the army ;
Brenholz, of the Fiftieth ; Gries, of the One Hun-
dred and Fourth ; Kohler, of the Ninety-eighth, were
I0 6 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
all of Pennsylvania birth, but of German descent.
Knoderer, of the One Hundred and Sixty-eighth,
was born in Baden, was educated at Carlsruhe, at
the Polytechnical School, and left the service of the
government to join Sigel's force in the unsuccessful
revolution of 1849. In Reading (Pennsylvania) he
found a new home and employment as a civil engi-
neer; but when the Rebellion broke out he went
first as a captain of engineers on Sigel's staff, then
enlisted as a private and was elected colonel of the
Eleventh Pennsylvania, and afterwards was appointed
colonel of the One Hundred and Sixty-eighth Penn-
sylvania, and fell at its head on the 3<Dth January,
1863, near Suffolk, Virginia.
Ballier was born in Wurtemberg in 1815 ; studied
at the Military School at Stuttgard in 1833-34; set-
tled in Philadelphia, where he was a member of the
Washington Guard, the first German military organi-
zation in the North, in 1836; enlisted as a private in
the First Pennsylvania for the Mexican war, was
made major for his services there, then was colonel
of the Twenty-first and of the Ninety-eighth for the
Rebellion. Twice seriously wounded, he still re-
mains with us to renew the recollection of his varied
experiences, a veteran of many battles.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Hartranft's commission as brigadier-general was
won by his services at Bull Run, Antietam, Freder-
icksburg; and as the hero of Fort Stedman he be-
came a major-general. His services in civil life have
been equally distinguished, and his career is marked
by well-earned honors, as Governor of Pennsylvania,
as the chief representative of the Federal Govern-
ment in Philadelphia, and as the head of the State
Everard Bierer, colonel of the One Hundred and
Seventy-first Pennsylvania, was the son of German
parents, settled in Fayette County. He won his first
successes in the Eleventh Pennsylvania Reserves,
was appointed by Governor Curtin to be colonel of
the One Hundred and Seventy-first, and was pro-
moted to the command of a brigade. Now he
is a successful lawyer, legislator, and farmer in
Colonel Lehmann, of the One Hundred and Third,
was born in Hanover in 1812, was educated there at
the military school, served for six years in the army,
and in 1837 came to Pittsburg, where he became a
teacher. He organized the Sixty-second Pennsylva-
nia, was its lieutenant-colonel, then was colonel of
the One Hundred and Third, and after the war re-
I0 g THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
sumed his work of education, and became president
of the Western Pennsylvania Military Academy.
The Wistars who served in the war by the half a
score were all of that good old German stock whose
representatives are so well and honorably known in
every walk of life in their native city and far beyond it.
Philadelphia sent General Isaac J. Wistar, colonel
of the Seventy-first Pennsylvania ; Major Joseph W.
Wistar, of the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry ; Colo-
nel Francis Wistar, captain of the Twelfth United
States Infantry, and colonel of the Two Hundred
and Fifteenth Pennsylvania ; Colonel Langhorne Wis-
tar, captain of the First Pennsylvania Rifles, " Buck-
tails," colonel of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Penn-
sylvania, and brevet brigadier-general ; Colonel Wil-
liam Rotch Wistar, of the Twentieth Pennsylvania
William Doster, colonel of the Fourth Cavalry,
was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where his
father, a native of Swabia, settled in 1817, marrying
the daughter of a Vorsteher of the Brethren's
House, the granddaughter of a Revolutionary sol-
dier. A graduate of Yale of '57, and of the Har-
vard Law School of '59, he studied law in Heidel-
berg and Paris. Returning to this country, he
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
became major of the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry,
led it in the Chancellorsville and Gettysburg cam-
paigns, and was promoted for his services.
General J. William Hofmann, colonel of the Fifty-
sixth Pennsylvania, was the son of Prussian parents,
who settled in Philadelphia in 1819. Long an active
member of local militia organizations, he went to the
field a thorough soldier, and his career was one of
distinguished gallantry, characterized alike by merit
and modesty. The opinion of all his superior offi-
cers was an unbroken and unanimous approval of his
ability and his courage, and he deserves, as he has
won, and he enjoys, the respect of his fellow-citizens
for the distinguished services he rendered in all the
responsible positions assigned him during his long
period of active service.
General Adolph Bushbeck was born in Coblenz,
Prussia, in 1822, the son of a German officer. From
his eleventh to his seventeenth year he was at the
cadet school in Berlin, then became ensign and lieu-
tenant, and at the suggestion of Steinwehr was ap-
pointed instructor at the cadet school at Potsdam,
from 1847 to I 852. In 1853 he came to Philadel-
phia, and was well and favorably known as a suc-
cessful teacher. When the Rebellion broke out he
IIO THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
became major, and later colonel of the Twenty-
seventh Pennsylvania, and in that and his successive
commands, as general of brigade and division, won
unstinted praise for his high soldierly qualities.
From General Sherman he received warm commen-
dation. The war over, he returned to Philadelphia,
and resumed his former occupation for some years,
and then, going abroad with his family, died in Flor-
ence, Italy, in 1883.
Henry Bohlen was born in Bremen in 1810. As
early as 1831, on the recommendation of Lafayette,
he was appointed on the staff of General Gerard,
and served during the siege of Antwerp. In the
Mexican war he served on the staff of General
Worth, and took part in many 'engagements. In
the Crimean war he served in the French army, and
at the outbreak of the Rebellion, returning from
Europe, where he was living in great splendor, enjoy-
ing a large fortune and a brilliant social position, he
raised the Seventy-fifth, a German regiment, mainly
at his own expense, and led it with such distinguished
gallantry that he was commended in warm terms by
Fremont and Sigel, under whom he served, and was
soon appointed a brigadier-general. His brilliant
career ended in his death in action, in August, 1862.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. UI
The Vezins Oscar, Henry, Alfred served with
credit in various branches of the service, always
doing honor to a name that belongs to one of the
oldest merchants of Philadelphia in its days of great-
ness as a commercial city.
Henry Vezin was captain Company G, Fifth Penn-
sylvania Cavalry; Alfred, captain Company C, Fif-
teenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and afterwards adju-
tant Fourth Missouri Cavalry.
The name of General John A. Koltes is perpetu-
ated in that of the Post No. 228 of the Grand Army
of the Republic, which thus does due honor to that
gallant soldier. He organized the Seventy-third
Regiment, originally known as the Pennsylvania
Legion, Forty-fifth of the line. It was recruited in
Philadelphia, in June and July, 1861, and was first at
a rendezvous at Lemon Hill. Colonel Koltes, Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Muehleck, Major Schott, were the
field-officers. It joined Blenker's division in Sep-
tember, and went with it through the West Virginia
campaign under Fremont and Sigel, and then under
Pope into the second Bull Run. Koltes was in com-
mand of the brigade, and Brueckner of the regiment,
when they both fell in action on the 3Oth of August,
1862, gallantly leading their men against an over-
II2 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
whelming force. General Schurz, in his report as
division commander, commends the conduct of
Koltes and his brigade, temporarily attached to his
division. It consisted of the Sixty-eighth New
York, the Twenty-ninth New York, and the Seventy-
third Pennsylvania, with Dilger's Battery. He says,
" The gallant Koltes died a noble death at the head
of his brave regiments," and he deplores " the brave
and noble Koltes." General Sigel, who commanded
the First Corps, regrets, in his report, " the death of
the intrepid Koltes."
General Koltes was born in Treves in 1827, and
came to this country while he was still a lad, in his
seventeenth year. He became a teacher in a Catholic
institute in Pittsburg, enlisted in 1846 as a volunteer
in the Mexican war, and afterwards in the regular
army. On his return he was employed in the United
States Mint, became a member of the Scott Legion,
and took an active part in the local militia. He
drilled the Mannerchor Rifle Guards for home ser-
vice, and recruited a regiment for the war. He re-
ceived a commission as brigadier-general, and it was
at the head of- his brigade that he fell in action at
the second Bull Run. Koltes was, like Ballier,
Binder, and Bohlen, one of the active spirits in the
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. n$
early military organizations in Philadelphia. Besides
the Philadelphia regiments, they furnished for the
war four companies of Philadelphia Turners, who
joined their comrades in the Turner Regiment, or-
ganized in New York under Colonel Soest, and many
went into New Jersey regiments and those of other
Among the young Germans of Philadelphia, Fritz
Tiedeman has a high place for his gallant services.
He was, successively, quartermaster-sergeant, second
lieutenant, adjutant, and captain of the Seventy-fifth
Pennsylvania, and then on the staff of General
Schurz; and his brother, who fell early in the war,
gave promise of equal merit.
General Louis Wagner was born in Giessen,
Germany, in 1838, and came to Philadelphia as a
lad with his father, a revolutionary refugee, in 1849.
Educated at the public schools, in 1861 he entered
the service as a first lieutenant of the Eighty-eighth
Pennsylvania Volunteers, and at the close was
colonel of the regiment and a brevet brigadier-gen-
eral. Returning to civil life, he organized the Grand
Army of the Republic in Pennsylvania, in 1879, and
has been one of the leading men of that organization
ever since. He has taken a very active part in other
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
civil and military bodies, and has been honored by
many elective offices and appointments, all of which
he has filled with characteristic zeal and energy.
New York, as the gathering place of all nationali-
ties, naturally sent many Germans to the army. The
Thirty-ninth, or Garibaldi Guard, consisted of three
companies of Germans, three of Hungarians, one
each of Swiss, Italians, and French, and one of Span-
ish and Portuguese.
The Seventh Regiment Infantry, New York State
Volunteers, or " Steuben Rangers," organized by
Colonel John E. Bendix, and reorganized by Colonel
G. von Schach, had, as its original officers, Lieutenant-
Colonel Edward Kapff, Major C. Keller, and Captains
Goebel, Boecht, Brestel, Pfeiffer, Anselm, Hocheimen
S. L. Kapff, Schonleber, Bethan, Wratislau.
The Eighth, or " First German Rifles," was organ-
ized by Blenker, who commanded a brigade at the
first Bull Run, and a division under Fremont in
the valley campaign. It was in Sigel's corps in the
second Battle of Bull Run.
The Twentieth, or " United Turner Rifles," was
organized by the New York Turn-Verein, in April,
1861, from its societies. German citizens provided
the money for its expenses ; a committee of ladies,
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. n$
called the " Turner-sisters," supplied many necessa-
ries. Max Weber was its colonel, Franz Weiss lieu-
tenant-colonel, and Englebert Schnepf major.
The Twenty-ninth, or " Astor Rifles," was organ-
ized by Steinwehr, who, in his farewell order, says it
was the last to leave the field at Bull Run, and served
with distinction under Fremont, Sigel, and at Chan-
cellorsville, and earned a place in the history of the
The Fifth New York State Militia was a German
organization, its officers were, Colonel Schwarzwal-
der, Lieutenant-Colonel Burger, Major von Amsberg.
Of the Forty-first, or De Kalb Guards, Colonel
von Gilsa, seven hundred of its men had been in the
Prussian service in the Schleswig-Holstein war. One
company was raised in Philadelphia, and another in
Newark, New Jersey.
The Fifty-second Regiment Infantry, New York
State Volunteers, was organized at Staten Island,
New York, in the autumn of 1861, by the consolida-
tion of four companies of the " Sigel Rifles," and
six companies of the " German Rangers," under
Colonel Paul Frank.
The commanders of companies were :
A. Captain Charles G. Freudenberg.
H6 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
B. Captain Henry L. Klein.
C. Captain Gustave Schultze.
D. Captain Oscar von Schoening.
E. Captain J. C. Messerschmidt.
F. Captain Charles Mohring.
G. Captain O. C. Garwin.
H. Captain Jacob Rueger.
I. Captain Adolphus Becker.
K. Captain Francis Benzler.
The lieutenant-colonel was Louis Kasouzki; major,
Philip C. Lichtenstein.
A national flag, a regimental flag, and two guidons
were presented by the German ladies of New York.
It formed part of the Third Brigade, First Divis-
ion, Second Corps, was brigaded ' with the Fifty-
seventh and Sixty-sixth New York, and Fifty-third
Pennsylvania, under Sumner, French, Zook, and
At Antietam it lost its lieutenant-colonel, Lichten-
stein ; at Gettysburg, its brigade commander, Zook; in
the Wilderness campaign under Hancock, two gal-
lant Germans, Count Hacke and Baron von Steuben,
both officers of the Prussian army, serving as volun-
teers in that of the Union. Count Hacke was a
brave and gentle comrade, of kind, modest, and un-
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
assuming manners, endeared to his fellow-soldiers
by his manly virtues. His epitaph is written in the
hearts of all who knew him, as a brave and true
soldier, who fell in battle for a noble cause.
In October of 1864, the remnant of the original
Fifty-second, five officers and thirty-five men, under
Major Retzius, returned to New York. Colonel
Frank, promoted to be a brigadier-general, was suc-
ceeded by Colonel Karples, and under him the
regiment was finally mustered out in July, 1865. Of
the two thousand eight hundred whose names
appear on its rolls, only two hundred returned;
thirty-four of its officers were killed or disabled dur-
ing its four years of service.
The Military Order of the Loyal Legion is for the
Union army what the Society of the Cincinnati was
for the Revolutionary army. Its records preserve
and perpetuate the memories of many gallant sol-
diers. Among them is to be found a sketch of the
life and services of Carl Gottfried Freudenberg. Born
in Heidelberg, Germany, May I, 1833, at an early
age he entered the military service as a cadet in the
Carlsruhe School. While there the revolution of
1848 broke out, and, although but fifteen, he took
the field with his fellow-students, and was engaged
Ug THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
in the battle fought near Mannheim. As his mind
matured it developed such conclusions upon political
liberty as impelled him to forego brilliant prospects
of preferment, and he came to the United States a
few years before the great Rebellion. When a call
was issued for soldiers he raised a company of in-
fantry, and with it entered the service as captain of
the Fifty-second New York Volunteer Infantry, Au-
gust 3, 1 86 1. On the pth of November he became
its major, and was severely wounded at the battle
of Fair Oaks. On November 24, 1862, he was pro-
moted lieutenant-colonel, and commanded his regi-
ment at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, where he
was again desperately wounded. Forced to leave
the field by his injuries, he resigned his commission
in the Fifty-second New York and accepted an ap-
pointment as major in the Veteran Reserve Corps,
organized the Twenty-third Regiment, and on April
22, 1864, became its lieutenant-colonel, serving in
the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned
Lands, as commandant at Milwaukee, as inspector-
general and commandant of the District of Wiscon-
sin. On the reorganization of the army he was ap-
pointed captain of the Forty-fifth (Veteran Reserve)
Infantry; in 1869 was transferred to the Fourteenth
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Infantry, was brevetted colonel of volunteers, and as
major and lieutenant-colonel of the regular army.
In May, 1870, he went with his regiment to the
Northwest, to quell a threatened Indian outbreak,
but in December he was obliged to go on the retired
list as captain, and in 1877 he was promoted lieu-
tenant-colonel. He died in Washington, August 28,
1885, enjoying the confidence and affection of all
who knew him, as the very embodiment of personal
honor and soldierly virtue.
One of the most effective services rendered the
cause of the Union was the long series of political
cartoons furnished to Harper's Weekly during the
civil war by Thomas Nast, born on the Rhine in
1840. His pencil was recognized far and wide as
that of a sturdy champion, and his productions were
heartily welcomed by the soldiers in the field and
by earnest patriots everywhere. Thomas Nast was
born in Landau, Bavaria, September 27, 1840, and
came with his mother to New York in 1846, and
was there joined in 1849 by his father, who had
served on the man-of-war " Ohio." He began to
work on Frank Leslie's illustrated paper, studied in
the Academy of Design, made a campaign with Gari-
baldi in 1860, sending sketches to the New York,
12Q THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
London, and Paris illustrated papers, returning to
New York in 1861. His contributions to Harper's
Weekly became historical, and have received the
well-merited praise of historians and art critics.
They were useful in keeping alive the loyal feeling
of the North, and received the hearty plaudits of the
soldiers in the field. When peace was restored he
won new honors in the civil contest that waged
over Andrew Johnson's administration, and even now
he fights for good government with his pencil.
The Princess Salm-Salm, in her book, "Ten Years
of My Life," and a very adventurous one it was,
describes the camp of the German division (Blen-
ker's) in front of Washington, in the fall of 1861, as
the principal point of attraction. It consisted of
about twelve thousand men, under Blenker and Stein-
wehr, who had gained great credit for protecting the
retreat from the first Bull Run. Blenker was born in
Tours, had served in the Bavarian army and in that
of Greece under its Bavarian king, took part in the
German revolution of '48, fled to Switzerland, then
came to New York, and was farming when the Re-
bellion broke out. He raised the Eighth New York,
and Prussian and Austrian soldiers furnished a con-
siderable proportion of its officers, among them
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. I2 i
Prince Salm-Salm, who served to the end of the
war, then in Mexico, and finally fell in the Franco-
Prussian war. Another of his officers was Corvin,
who, after six years in Prussian prisons as a penalty
for his share in the German revolution, came to this
country as the war correspondent of the London
Times and the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung.
Among other German officers were von der
Groeben; von Schack, colonel of the Seventh New
York; von Buggenhagen, one of its captains; von
Radowitz, Schwenke, Gerber, Max Weber; Schirmer,
chief of artillery of the Eleventh Corps; von Putt-
kammer, of the Third Corps ; von Amsberg, von
Gilsa, von Kusserow, von Kleisser; von Schrader,
of the Seventy-fourth Ohio, killed in action; von
Trebra, of the Thirty-second Indiana; and Leppien,
lieutenant-colonel of the First Maine Artillery, one
of the most gallant soldiers, from Philadelphia.
Carl Schurz was the first colonel of the first regi-
ment of volunteer cavalry duly authorized to be
raised. On his way to New York he found Chor-
man's Rangers also inviting recruits, while other
cavalry companies were being busily raised in Phila-
delphia. In New York he found additional coun-
trymen at work, Frederick von Schickfuss, August
122 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Haurand, Count Haake, von Blankenburg, Bern de
Tavergnier, von Strautz, von Veltheim, Count Fer-
dinand Storch, and Count von Moltke, Hendricks,
Passegger, Hertzog, who soon found plenty of men.
Schurz himself went to Spain as minister, and the
regiment was fortunate in having for its first colonel
in the field A. T. M. Reynolds, a very good, experi-
enced soldier. The four companies of Germans were
all old soldiers. Their record through the war is a
very creditable one, and the First New York Cav-
alry did its work so well that Germans may be proud
of their countrymen in it both from New York and
The German element in the cavalry and artillery
went far to make both of these arms of the service
efficient and capable. In every regiment of cavalry
and in every battery of artillery there were found old
German soldiers, trained in a way that made them
models for the green recruits, and instructors alike
of officers and men. In most of the regiments of
the regular army there were privates and non-com-
missioned officers, Germans by birth and soldiers by
training, who were looked on with the respect that
courage and discipline always secure. Many of
them were promoted to commissions, and some of
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
them commanded volunteer regiments with great
credit. One of the most notable trained and veteran
German soldiers was Adolph von Steinwehr, who
was born September 25, 1825, at Blankenburg in
Brunswick. His father was a major, his grandfather
a lieutenant-general. He studied in the military
school, became a lieutenant, came to the United
States, and served as an officer of an Alabama regi-
ment during the Mexican war. He was employed
as an engineer by the United States, married in
Mobile, returned to Germany, and then became a
farmer in Connecticut. At the outbreak of the civil
war he became colonel of the Twenty-ninth New
York, part of the Germans that excited interest and
admiration by their steadiness at the first Bull Run.
This led to the organization of a German division
under Blenker, the First Brigade under Stahel : the
Eighth, Wutschel; Thirty-ninth, D'Utassy; and Forty-
fifth, von Amsberg, New York ; and Twenty-seventh
Pennsylvania, Bushbeck; Second Brigade, Steinwehr:
Twenty-ninth, Kozlay ; Fifty-fourth, Kryzanowsky ;
Fifty-eighth, Gellman, New York; Seventy-third
Pennsylvania, Koltes; Third Brigade, Bohlen: Forty-
first, Von Gilsa, and Sixty-eighth New York, Klee-
fisch; Seventy-fourth, Schimmelpfennig; Seventy-fifth
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Pennsylvania, Mahler; Fourth New York Cavalry,
Dickel ; batteries of Schirmer, Wilderich, and Sturm-
fels. There were changes in the organization in
which Sigel and Schurz obtained successive com-
mands. Finally at Chancellorsville the tide turned,
and the Germans of the Eleventh Corps were spoken
of as if the ill-fortune of the battle was due to them.
Steinwehr, however, was always honored for the con-
duct of his troops, and at Gettysburg again his mili-
tary reputation was enhanced by his services. Under
Sherman he won fresh honors in the West, and
served in the army until the close of the war. From
that time until his death in 1877 he was engaged in
the work of authorship on subjects for which his
thorough training especially fitted 'him. His char-
acter was marked by many manly qualities, and his
name is an enduring example of German patriotism,
soldiership, and culture.
Leopold von Gilsa, colonel of the Forty-first New
York Volunteers, the De Kalb regiment, was a
typical German soldier. Born in Prussia in 1825,
the son of a Prussian officer, he served in that army,
for which he was specially educated, became a major
in the Schleswig-Holstein war, and soon afterwards
came to this country. He was peaceably employed
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
in teaching when the Rebellion broke out, and
then he organized his regiment, and won for it the
distinction of a thoroughly well-disciplined and ca-
pable body of good soldiers. Wounded at Cross
Keys, he gained the confidence and admiration of
his superiors by the way in which he handled his
regiment and the brigade, and by his services as chief
of staff to General Sigel when he was in command
of the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps. He served until
1864, when he was mustered out as colonel, although
he had served as commander of brigade and division.
Returning to civil life, he died in New York in 1870,
in consequence of the wounds and exposure inci-
dental to four years of almost uninterrupted cam-
paign life, marches, and battles. Gilsa Post, No. 264,
of the Grand Army of the Republic, fitly marks by
the adoption of his name the honor intended to be
paid his memory by those who could best appreciate
his services to his adopted country and his example
of the devotion of his life to the cause in which he
and his countrymen were united.
The First New York Battalion of Light Artillery,
known as Brickel's Artillery, was composed of four
batteries, all Germans, Major Brickel, Captains Diet-
rich, Voegelin, Knierim, and Kusserow. After An-
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
tietam, where Major Arndt, commander of the bat-
talion, was killed, the batteries were made indepen-
dent, and were numbered Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth,
Thirty-first, and Thirty-second. The Twenty-ninth
was afterwards consolidated with the Thirty-second,
Captain von Kusserow. Captain Kleisser was pro-
moted to command of the Thirtieth, and the Thirty-
first was subsequently consolidated with the Thirtieth.
In 1865, Kusserow was appointed colonel of the Sec-
ond Regiment of Hancock's Veteran Corps. The
Twenty-ninth and Thirty-second Batteries were con-
solidated with the Fourth and Fifteenth Indepen-
dent Batteries, but retained the number Thirty-second.
Von Kusserow was an old officer of the Prussian
army, the son of General von Kus"serow. He died
in Philadelphia, and was buried in presence of the
German consul, Major Mergenthaler, and H. Dieck,
his old comrades in arms.
Colorado had forty-two Germans in the Second
Regiment, besides others whose nationalities are
given as Austria, Prussia, Poland, Denmark, Swe-
den, Russia, Norway, Bohemia, Saxony, Holland,
Bavaria, and Switzerland ; so that even on the bor-
ders the proportion of foreigners was a very large one.
Among the notable officers from Illinois, besides
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Hecker, whose memory deserves especial mention,
there was General Knobelsdorff, a graduate of the
military school at Culm, Prussia, who was a lieuten-
ant in the Prussian army, joined the Schleswig-Hol-
stein army, and came with hundreds of his comrades
to the United States in 1851. He lived in Milwau-
kee and Chicago, and when the Rebellion broke out
organized the Twenty-fourth and Forty-fourth Illi-
nois, commanded a brigade in Sigel's corps, under
Asboth, and had under him Colonel Nicholas Greu-
sel, of the Seventh and Thirty-sixth Illinois, and
Colonel Julius C. Raith, of the Forty-third. The
Thirteenth Illinois Cavalry was also largely a Ger-
Adolph Engelmann served in the Mexican war in
the Second Illinois, and during the Rebellion was
colonel of the Forty-third Illinois, receiving the ap-
pointment of brigadier-general as a reward.
His predecessor in the Forty-third Illinois, Julius
Raith, was born in Germany in 1820, came to the
United States in 1837, served as lieutenant in the
Second Illinois in the Mexican war, was promoted
to captain, and, good Democrat as he had been, was
ready to serve in the war for the Union as colonel
of the Forty-third, a German regiment largely or-
128 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
ganized by Gustav Korner. He fell at Shiloh, in
command of a brigade.
Hugo Wangelin was educated at the military
school of Berlin, came to the United States in 1834,
served in the Twelfth Missouri, under Osterhaus, and
succeeded him in command of the regiment when
Osterhaus was promoted, making a reputation for
distinguished gallantry for himself and his German
soldiers, representatives of the best elements of Ger-
man emigration in the West. Wangelin took part
in twenty-eight engagements, and died in 1883.
Gustav Korner was a leading spirit in all German
organizations in the West, both in peace and war,
and his term of office as governor was marked by
many events of importance.
Korner himself is a representative German, and his
earnest efforts to advance German culture and to en-
graft it on American patriotism deserve hearty rec-
ognition. His services in organizing troops and in
the executive chair of Illinois are well known. His
name is honorably perpetuated in his book describing
the successive and successful settlement of Germans
throughout the United States. He has represented
his adopted country creditably abroad, and is now
among the veterans around whom cluster the asso-
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. i 2 g
ciation of all that is best, alike in German and Ameri-
Thielemann's cavalry battalion and Hotaling's
company of the Second Illinois Cavalry, and Stolle-
man's and D'Osband's and Gumbart's artillery, are
among the German organizations that received fre-
quent and always honorable mention in the history
of the Western campaigns.
Gumbart's Battery, Second Illinois Light Artillery,
was organized by Captain Adolph Schwarz, a son of
Major-General Schwarz, of Baden. He was severely
wounded at Shiloh. The first lieutenant was M. W.
Mann, now a citizen of Texas.
Friedrich Hecker is one of the names that unite
Germany and America in a common love of liberty.
Born in Baden in 1811, educated at Heidelberg and
Munich, he became a leader of the Republican party
in his native country, and was recognized as one of
the master-spirits of the outbreak of 1848. To its
failure we owe the large accession of many Ger-
mans, whose part in the Union cause has become
one of the brightest pages of our history. His wel-
come to his new fatherland was hearty and universal.
He settled down to a quiet farmer's life in Illinois,
took an active share in the work of the Republican
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
party, enlisted at the outbreak of the Rebellion in
Sigel's regiment in St. Louis, and commanded, suc-
cessively, the Twenty-fourth and the Eighty- second
Illinois Volunteers, and left the field only because he
was so severely wounded that he could no longer
serve in the army. Like Carl Schurz, he was in-
vited to return to Germany to take part in the or-
ganization of its unity as an empire, but his love of
America and American freedom made it impossible
for him to leave his home. He was a representa-
tive man among the Germans, active in all their
best work in civil life, and his death, on the 22d of
September, 1881, called forth universal expression
of grief and sorrow. At his grave, and afterwards
at the dedication of a monument to his memory in
St. Louis, his old associates and his younger admirers
bore testimony to the respect and affection in which
Hecker's name was held. Sigel, Schurz, Korner,
Thielemann, Rombauer, Stifel, Ledergerber, Engle-
mann, and many who had fought together on both
continents for Republican principles, attested the ser-
vice done to constitutional liberty in Europe and
America by Friedrich Hecker, and the gratitude of
Germany and of all Germans alike in the old and
the new fatherland.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. i* l
Colonel Emile Frey, the Swiss minister to the
United States, was an officer of Hecker's Illinois
regiments, the Twenty-fourth and Eighty-second, he
volunteered, and was a lieutenant in the former and
became a major in the latter, thus serving as a sol-
dier in two republics, that of his native Switzerland
and in that of his temporary home. The son of a
distinguished Liberal leader in the Canton of Basel,
the father was fortunate enough in his old age to
see him a soldier in the American Republic, and
later the diplomatic representative of that of Switzer-
land in Washington. Colonel Frey's return to the
United States was made the occasion of a hearty
welcome alike from his countrymen and from his
fellow-soldiers, and his well-earned reputation as a
soldier in defence of the American Union was height-
ened by his able management of the interests of the
Swiss Confederation in the United States. The tie
that unites the two republics was greatly strength-
ened by this marked instance of the good service
rendered the Union cause by its Swiss soldiers. A
sketch of a Swiss company of sharpshooters serving
during the war was printed at Richtersweil, Switzer-
land, in 1865, under the title, " Drei Jahre in der
Potomac-armee oder eine Schweitzer Schiitzen Com-
pagnie im Nordamerikanischen Kriege" (8vo, pp. 228).
The report made to the Swiss Confederation by its
veteran General Dufour is one of the best accounts
of the Federal forces at the outset, and the visit of
that gallant soldier is still remembered by all who
met him during his stay in this country.
Iowa has preserved in the reports of the adjutant-
general of the State a list of the places of nativity of
its soldiers. Germany, of course, has its representa-
tives in almost every organization, and in the Six-
teenth and Twenty-sixth Iowa Volunteers there were
companies entirely composed of Germans, rank and
file, while the Fifth Cavalry was composed in part of
Germans enlisted at Dubuque and Burlington for the
Fremont Guards, by Colonel Carl Schaefer de Boern-
stein, who fell in action in Tennessee in May, 1862,
and was mourned as a gallant soldier.
Matthes's Iowa battalion won distinction in Sher-
man's army. Colonel Nicholas Perczel, of the Tenth
Iowa, was also commended as an excellent soldier.
From the French colonists settled at Icaria, in
Iowa, came a number of soldiers, among them Anton
von Gaudain, who was born in Berlin, of French-
Huguenot stock, the son of an army officer, and
himself trained for an army officer. He came to the
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
United States at twenty-five, edited a French paper
in New York, taught school, joined the Icarian com-
munity in Icaria, served for three years in the Union
army, and after the war made his home in Corning,
Iowa, near a settlement of French Icarians, where he
died, in 1883. He was a scholar of remarkable at-
tainments, and was beloved by all who knew him.
Connecticut had in its Sixth Regiment a com-
pany of Germans from New Haven, Norwich, and
Waterbury, commanded by Captain Klein, who be-
came lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, and an-
other, under Captain Biebel, from Bridgeport, Meri-
den, and New York. In its Eleventh Regiment,
Captain Moegling had a company of Germans from
New Haven and Fairfield.
Indiana, according to the report of the adjutant-
general of that State, had in its volunteer regiments
6456 Germans, not far short of the 7190 credited to
the State by Dr. Gould after the war had enabled
him to make a fuller comparison of figures, and a
fair proportion of the 14,940 foreigners serving in
and for that State, and of the 155,5/8 of its volun-
teer soldiers. Among the most noteworthy of its
representative German soldiers were General August
Willich, and Colonel John Gerber, killed in com-
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
mand of the Twenty-fourth Indiana at Shiloh, April
A German, Albert Lange, was one of the active
staff of Governor Morton, and worked faithfully to
enable that State to do its share successfully in the
war of the Rebellion. Another German, John B.
Lutz, led the Indiana forces in their resistance to
Morgan's raids. The Thirty-second was a distinc-
tive German regiment, organized in Dearborn, Floyd,
Fort Wayne, Jefferson, and other farming districts,
from the best classes of German-American settlers.
Kentucky had many Germans among its fifty-six
thousand loyal soldiers, and just as the Germans
saved St. Louis and Missouri to the Union, so they
helped to keep Louisville and Kentucky out of the
Confederacy. F. Bierbower was major of the For-
tieth Kentucky. Von Kielmansegge served in cav-
alry commands in Missouri, Florida, and Maryland,
where von Koerber was also a major of the First
Minnesota wisely preserved a list of the nativities
of its soldiers in the reports of its adjutant-general
during the war. Company G, of the Second Regi-
ment, and Companies D and E, of the Fifth Regi-
ment, were both German organizations; and Henning
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. ^5
von Minden was captain of Company A of the bat-
talion of cavalry raised by him, and Emil Munch was
captain of the First Minnesota Light Artillery. John
C. Becht, major of the Fifth Minnesota, and R. von
Borgersock, colonel, are among the notable German
officers from this State.
Maine had as lieutenant-colonel of its First Artil-
lery Regiment and captain of its Fifth Battery, George
F. Leppien, who had been lieutenant in a Pennsyl-
vania battery. He was well known to Philadelphians
from his residence and his connection with leading
citizens of that city. Educated at a military school
in Germany, he showed himself a thorough soldier
in his life and in his heroic death.
Michigan supplied four thousand eight hundred
and seventy-two Germans out of a total of fourteen
thousand foreigners, and in addition to seventy-six
thousand native-born citizens, in its portion of the
army. It is worth noting that Gould's estimate gives
only three thousand five hundred and thirty-four.
In the eleventh and twelfth volumes of Der
Deutsche Pionier, Cincinnati, 1879-80, are published
numerous contributions on the outbreak of the
civil war in Missouri, by Friedrich Schnake, which
give in great detail the part taken by its German
136 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
citizens in saving that State for the Union. The
leaders of German thought and opinion in St. Louis
counted many who afterwards fought for their faith
in the ranks of the Union army. Carl Danzer,
Theodore Olshausen, Heinrich Bornstein, and L. C.
Bernays, as editors of the Westlichen Post and Anzeiger
des Westens, did much to strengthen their German
readers in their political views, and Friedrich Munch,
Franz Sigel, Friederich Hecker, and Gustav Koerner
gave their powerful help to the cause of the Union.
Carl Schurz, Friederich Hassaurek, J. B. Stallo, and
others were the leading Republican orators in the war
of words that preceded the appeal to arms. Emil
Rothe, Egly, Briihl, and Dresel were Douglas Dem-
ocrats, and Carl Rumelin was spokesman almost
without any German following for the Breckinridge
wing of the party, although the secession lieutenant-
governor, Thomas C. Reynolds, was said to be really
named Reinhardt, of Prague. A German, Arnold
Krekel, now a judge of the United States Court,
presided over the convention which forever abol-
ished slavery in Missouri. Blair and Lyon, Scho-
field and Saxton, were the active representatives of
the National Government, but their strength came
from the support of the loyal Germans. The Third
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Regiment Missouri Volunteers had Franz Sigel for
its colonel, the Second, Henry Bornstein. Born in
Hamburg in 1801, he entered the Austrian army as
a cadet, served in the Italian campaign in 1822,
studied medicine in Vienna, was editor, actor, and
author in Germany, Austria, Italy, and France, and
finally settled in St. Louis after the revolution of
1848, where he established a successful newspaper.
Later on he resumed his theatrical undertaking,
and then returned to Vienna, where he corresponds
with both English and German newspapers in Europe
and America. The Fourth Missouri Regiment was
commanded by Nicholas Schuttsner, a native of Co-
blenz, a soldier in the Prussian army, and an emi-
grant to St. Louis in 1848. One of General Lyon's
most useful allies was John J. Witzig, born in Miihl-
hausen in 1821 ; educated at Chalons, at the age of
nineteen chief engineer of the Paris Orleans Railroad,
six years afterwards going to Italy as chief of the
construction of the Milan Turin Railroad. In 1849
he came with Cabet's Icarians to Nauvoo, where he
remained until 1851, when he came to St. Louis as
superintendent of a locomotive works. In 1857 be-
came superintendent of the North Missouri, in 1859
of the Iron Mountain Railroad, remaining in its ser-
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
vice until 1865. He died in 1872, member of a large
firm of architects and engineers. Another able ally
was Captain William Jackson, commander of the
German artillery company. His real name was Jac-
quin. Born in Metz in 1821, he came to the United
States in 1834, served 'three years in the Second
United States Dragoons in the Florida and Indian
campaigns, was discharged in 1837, enlisted in 1839
in the Third Infantry, and in 1844 in the Seventh,
serving under General Taylor in the Mexican war.
Settled in St. Louis, he organized in 1852 a company
of uhlans, which was afterwards changed to one of
dragoons. In 1859 he became captain of the Mis-
souri artillery company, and when the war broke
out brought his guns and his company of a hundred
men all Germans except eighteen Frenchmen and
Americans out of the rebel camp into the Union
service. He was lieutenant-colonel of the Fifteenth
Missouri and captain of the Second Missouri Artil-
lery. One of the captains of Sigel's regiment was
Constantin Blandowsky. Born in Prussia, on the bor-
der of Russian Poland, in 1821, he was educated at the
Polytechnic School in Dresden, served in the French
army in Algiers, took part in various unsuccessful
Polish revolutions, then fought in Italy against Aus-
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
tria and in the Hungarian army, came to the United
States in 1850, and later to St. Louis. He died on
May 25, 1 86 1, of wounds received in the attack on
Camp Jackson, and was buried with military honors.
The work done by the German soldiers of Missouri
is told in the history of the war, but the names of
those most prominent in their ranks will serve as
illustrations of the fitness for the new task laid upon
them, and of their loyalty to their new Fatherland.
Peter Joseph Osterhaus was born in Coblenz,
studied at the military school in Berlin, and became
an officer of the Prussian army. In 1849 ne came
to the United States, settled in St. Louis, on the out-
break of the civil war was chosen major of the Sec-
ond Missouri, and after the battle of Wilson's Creek,
colonel of the Twelfth Missouri ; under Fremont
commanded a brigade, at Pea Ridge a division, and
on the Qth of June, 1862, was made a brigadier-
general. He was assigned the command of a division
of the Thirteenth Corps at Helena, and took part in
the capture of Arkansas Post on January 13, 1863,
and in the subsequent siege of Vicksburg. In the
campaigns in Tennessee and Georgia he took a dis-
tinguished part; on the 23d July, 1864, was made
a major-general, served under General Sherman in
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
the march to the sea, and was chief of staff to Gen-
eral Canby at the surrender of the army of General
Kirby Smith, in May, 1865. In 1866 he was ap-
pointed American consul in Lyons, France.
Franz Hassendeubel was born at Gernsheim, in
Rhenish Bavaria, in 1817, was educated at Speier
and Munich, came to the United States in 1842, and
settled in St. Louis in 1844. In the Mexican war
he was lieutenant in a volunteer battery, and later
became captain, and served in New Mexico to the
end. At the outbreak of the Rebellion he returned
in all speed from Germany, became lieutenant-colonel
of Sigel's Third Missouri, constructed the defences
of St. Louis, was made brigadier-general, was mor-
tally wounded at the siege of Vicksburg, and died
July 17, 1863.
Of the Union forces engaged at the battle of Wil-
son's Creek, the German organizations were Oster-
haus's battalion, First Kansas Infantry, Colonel Deitz-
ler; Third Missouri, Colonel Franz Sigel; Fifth Mis-
souri, Colonel C. E. Salomon; Colonel Henry Boern-
stein's regiment, five German regiments from St.
Louis, Jefferson City, etc., a light battery of six guns
under Lieutenants Schaefer and Schutzenbach, and
two batteries of eight guns under Major Backoff.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
The Third Regiment of Missouri Volunteers was
organized in St. Louis by Franz Sigel for the three
months' service, and took part in three battles during
that time. The Fourth Regiment was the Black
Yaeger Regiment, Colonel Schlittner ; the Fifth was
also a German regiment, commanded by Colonel
Salomon. Of others there were the First Cavalry,
Colonel Almstedt ; the Second Reserves, Colonel
Kallmann ; the Third, Colonel Fritz ; the Fourth,
Colonel Hundehausen and Colonel Wesseling; and
the Fifth, Colonel Stifel. Of the three years' regi-
ments there were the Second, Colonel Laibold ; the
Third, Colonel Hequembourg ; the Fourth, Colonel
Poten ; the Twelfth, Colonel (afterwards General) Os-
terhaus and Colonel Wangelin ; the Fifteenth, Colonel
Conrad; the Seventeenth, Colonel Hassendeubel; the
Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, and Forty-first, under Kutz-
ner, Weydemeyer, and Von Deutsch, and the Fourth
Cavalry, organized out of the Fremont and the Ben-
ton Hussars, almost entirely German in its rank and
file, although it was commanded by a gallant and
able American, Colonel Waring. Von Helmrich, his
lieutenant-colonel, was a type of the German soldier.
General Sigel himself was the first rallying-point
of the Germans, both of Missouri and the North-
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
west. Born in Baden in 1824, educated at the mili-
tary school at Carlsruhe, in command of the repub-
lican troops and minister of war in the revolution of
1848, he came to the United States in 1850, lived in
New York until 1858, when he went to St. Louis,
where he became a teacher in the German-American
Academy and editor of a military journal. When
the Rebellion broke out he raised the first German
regiment; and that old patriot, Hecker, came with
his sons from their home in Illinois, enlisted under
Sigel, and served with him until Hecker was made
colonel of an Illinois regiment. From Wisconsin
came General Salomon, who became colonel of the
Fifth Missouri, a brigadier-general, and commanded a
division in Fremont's army. Sigel's later services
are part of the general history of the war of the
In the " Geschichte des 4-jahrigen Biirgerkrieges
in d. V. S.," von C. Sander, " Hauptman in d. k. pr.
Artillerie," Frankfort-am-Main, Sauerlander, 1865, it
is stated that of the forty-three thousand officers of
the United States forces, from three to four hundred
only had been trained in military life abroad ; and
their services were interfered with by the jealousy of
the native citizens, by their ignorance of the Ian-
WARS OP THE UNITED STATES. ^3
guage, and of the new conditions of a war in a coun-
try in which they were strangers.
These statements are mere generalizations, not
based on any precise information, and the best reply
to them is found in the facts and names here gathered
Carl Schurz was born on the banks of the Rhine,
became well known through his active share in the
flight of Kinkel, gave up his embassy in Spain to
become a general of volunteers, and became a mem-
ber of Hayes's cabinet. His services as an orator
before the war made his name familiar to the whole
country, and his return to civil life has been marked
by many evidences of popular esteem and affection.
As editor of a series of books on our early German
history by Kapp and Seidensticker, he has again taken
the place which he has so well earned as the type of
the German-American citizen, equally loyal to the
country of his birth and that of his adoption and his
home, and alike appreciated in both.
In Nebraska, the German soldiers did good service
in the defence of the borders from Indians, in the
Second Cavalry, under General Sully; and in one
engagement in Dakota, in September, 1863, the
Indians, numbering two thousand warriors, were
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
defeated, but not without a severe loss. When the
regiment had served out its time, its veterans were
consolidated in an independent battalion of four
companies, and assigned to duty on the plains with
the First Nebraska Cavalry. In the summer of 1864
the Seventh Iowa Cavalry was assigned the defence
of the overland post route from Fort Kearney to
the borders, the First Nebraska Cavalry and a com-
pany of regular cavalry continued the line, and
protected the country from attacks by the Indians.
The raids became more and more frequent and
bloody, and hundreds of homes were destroyed, and
many settlers and their families killed or captured.
The local government organized a force of volun-
teers, and the War Department strengthened it by
such aid as it could give, and thus the country was
saved a repetition of the bloody horrors of West
Minnesota. The First Veteran Cavalry Regiment
was one-half German, and under Lieutenant-Colonel
Baiimer proved that it was able to cope successfully
with the Indians. Almost in sight of sixteen thousand
hostiles, he hanged " Black Kettle," an Indian chief,
convicted by a court-martial of murder. William
Baiimer was born in Miinster, Prussia, in 1826, was
educated there at its High School, was by turns a
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
carver and turner in wood, architect, and a railroad
employe. He served three years in the Thirteenth
Infantry, saw some active service, came to the United
States in 1852, worked in Cincinnati, then settled in
Guttenburg, Iowa, went to Dubuque, where he estab-
lished his reputation as architect and builder, then
went to St. Joseph, Missouri ; there he joined a Ger-
man rifle company, at the outbreak of the Rebellion
removed to Omaha, joined the First Nebraska, be-
came its captain, served to the end of the war, and
died in Omaha in 1869. His name is perpetuated by
the Baumer Post, Grand Army of the Republic, of
New Jersey had no distinctive German regiments,
although the Third New Jersey Cavalry, recruited
at Hoboken and Jersey City, was largely composed
of Germans; but German companies were found in
its regiments, notably K of the First, D of the
Second, E of the Third, A of the Fourth, and G
and L of the Second Cavalry, and K and L of the
Third, and Batteries B and C of the First Artillery.
General Mindel, colonel of the Thirty-third New
Jersey, was a very gallant and distinguished soldier.
The Third New Jersey Cavalry (or Thirty-sixth
New Jersey Regiment) was mustered into service,
146 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
February 10, 1864, as the First United States Hus-
sars. Among its officers were Major Siegfried von
Forstner, Captains Herzberg, Schafer, Knoblesdorf,
and Stoll, Lieutenants Stulpnagel, Kramer, Siebeth,
Joseph Karge, formerly a Prussian officer, was
lieutenant-colonel of the First New Jersey Cavalry,
commanded the First Brigade of Grierson's Division
of Cavalry, and is now professor at Princeton. General
Mindel commanded a brigade consisting of the One
Hundred and Twenty-seventh Pennsylvania, the One
Hundred and Thirty-fourth New York, and the
Thirty-third New Jersey.
Among the familiar names distinguished in the
Rebellion is that of the Roeblings, whose services
in war have been overshadowed by their brilliant
success in civil life ; yet their share was no small
one in the labors and the glories of the struggle for
Captain Sohm as an artillerist and General Karge
as a cavalry officer, and Major von Forstner and
Major Alstrom of the Third New Jersey Cavalry,
were among those who did especial service.
Ohio has a large proportion of Germans in its
borders, and from them have come many soldiers.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
In the Mexican war Cincinnati sent three German
companies, Columbus, Dayton, Hamilton, each two,
and the Second Ohio Volunteers was called the
German Regiment. It was commanded by August
Moor, who had served in the Florida war, and who
served again in the Rebellion. When Fort Sumter
was fired on, three German infantry companies and
the Washington Dragoons were on their way to
Washington the day the first call for troops was is-
sued. Two German regiments were soon organized,
and more than a third of the soldiers from Ohio were
Germans. There were eleven German regiments :
Ninth, Colonel Kammerling; Twenty-eighth, Colonel
Moor; Thirty-seventh, Colonel Sieber ; Forty-seventh,
Colonel Porschner; Fifty-eighth, Colonel Bausen-
wein; Sixty-seventh, Colonel Burstenbinder; Seventy-
fourth, Colonel von Schrader ; One Hundred and
Sixth, Colonel Tafel ; One Hundred and Seventh,
Colonel Meyer ; One Hundred and Eighth, Colonel
Limberg; One Hundred and Sixty-fifth, Colonel
Bohlander ; Third Cavalry, Colonel Zahm ; three
batteries, Hoffman's, Dilger's, and Markgraf's. The
German general officers from Ohio were Weitzel,
Kautz, Moor, Ammen, von Blessing, Darr, Giese,
Leister, Meyer, von Schrader, and Ziegler.
I4 8 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
August Moor, colonel of the Twenty-eighth Ohio,
was born in Leipsic in 1814, came to this country in
l %33> was an officer of the Washington Guard of
Philadelphia, and with its captain, Koseritz, took
part in the Seminole war in 1836 as lieutenant of a
dragoon regiment. In the Mexican war he rose
from captain to colonel of the Fourth Ohio, and at
the outbreak of the Rebellion was made colonel of
the Twenty-eighth Ohio, the second German regi-
ment, and became a brigadier-general as a reward
for his gallant service. Von Blessing of the Thirty-
seventh Ohio, Degenfeld of the Twenty-sixth, Aug.
Dotze of the Eighth Ohio Cavalry, Alex, von Schra-
der of the Seventy- fourth Ohio, Seidel of the Third
Ohio Cavalry, Sondersdorff of the Ninth Ohio, Tafel
of the One Hundred and Sixth Ohio, were among
those whose services are worth remembering.
General August Willich was born in Gorzyn, in
East Prussia, in 1810, of an old noble family;
his father had been captain in a hussar regiment.
As a child, the son, on the death of his father, became
a member of the family of Schleiermacher, the
famous theologian, a connection by marriage. At
twelve he was sent to the cadet school at Potsdam.
In 1828, after graduating at the military school in
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Berlin, he became an officer of an artillery regi-
ment, and in 1841, captain. A Socialist Democrat,
he learned the trade of a carpenter in his leisure
hours, and, leaving the service, soon took a foremost
rank in the revolution of 1848. In 1853 he came
to the United States with the idea of organizing a
force here to lead against Hamburg and Germany.
He found means of livelihood in the navy yard at
Brooklyn, then was appointed to the Coast Survey,
and finally became editor of the German Republican
of Cincinnati, where he was living when the Rebel-
lion broke out. He enlisted in the First Ohio,
became its adjutant and major of the Ninth Ohio,
and later, colonel of the Thirty- second (First Ger-
man) Indiana; was made a brigadier-general after
Shiloh, when his lieutenant-colonel, Von Trebra, be-
came colonel of the regiment. He died January 23,
Christopher Degenfeld was born in Germany in
1824, and trained there as a soldier. He was major
of the Twenty-sixth Ohio Volunteers, and afterwards
captain of the Twelfth Ohio Cavalry. His severe
wounds obliged him to retire, and his life was short-
ened by his suffering, until his death, in his fifty-
fourth year, in Sandusky.
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Captain Hermann Dettweiler was born in Baden
in 1825, and was a soldier in its revolutionary army.
He served in the Sixth Kentucky until his wounds
obliged him to leave the field. He died in Louisville
on the nth of September, 1878.
Battery A, First West Virginia Artillery, Captain
Furst, of Wheeling, was composed of Germans.
Wisconsin had for its war governor Edward Salo-
mon, born in Halberstadt, Prussia, in 1828. He
came to Wisconsin in 1849, and was by turns school-
teacher, county surveyor, court clerk, lawyer, and
governor. The Ninth Wisconsin was raised by Colo-
nel later General Frederich Salomon. Born in
Prussia in 1826, engineer, architect, and soldier in
Germany, he too came to the United States. He
first served in a Missouri regiment, but returned to
organize a German regiment in Wisconsin. His com-
panies were, among other striking titles, The She-
boygan Tigers, The Sigel Guard, The Wisconsin
Tigers, and The Tell Sharpshooters. When the
colonel became a brigadier -general, the regiment
was commanded by Colonel Jacobi and by Colonel
Charles E. Salomon, the third and eldest brother.
Colonel Charles E. Salomon was, like the
governor and the general, born in Germany, in
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. j^j
1822. He was educated as a surveyor, served as
a volunteer in the Pioniers, and in 1843 became
an officer of that corps. He was employed, too, in
railroad and other engineering work. In 1849 he
came West; in 1850 to St. Louis, where he was
elected county surveyor, defeating Ulysses S. Grant
in the contest for the popular vote, county en-
gineer, and held a variety of other technical offices
in the city's service. He organized and was colonel
of the Fifth Missouri Volunteers, and when it was
mustered out took command of the Ninth Wiscon-
sin, winning the brevet of brigadier-general. Re-
turned to civil life, he was frequently employed by
the United States, and died on February 8, 1880.
The Twenty-sixth Wisconsin was another German
regiment, organized at Camp Sigel, Milwaukee, and
commanded by Colonel Jacobi and General Winkler.
It served in the Eleventh Corps, and shared in its
varying fortunes in the East and its brilliant suc-
cesses under Sherman. The Twenty-seventh was
also a German regiment under Colonel Conrad Krez,
so were the Thirty-fourth, under Colonel Fritz An-
neke, and the Thirty-fifth, under Colonel Henry Orff.
Gustav von Deutsch commanded a company of cav-
alry from Wisconsin, which became Company M of
I $ 2 THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
the Fourth Missouri Cavalry. The Second Battery,
Wisconsin Artillery, was also a German organization.
The Fritz Anneke of the Thirty-fourth Wisconsin
was also the author of the " Zweite Freiheitsampf,"
published at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in 1861.
Of the German soldiers in the Rebellion, those
mentioned in these pages may well be considered
typical examples. These are but a small proportion
of the great number who served with equal patriot-
ism. It is not possible in any brief way to give
a detailed account of all of those who were for-
tunate enough to be distinguished in their special
services. These pages are only a sketch of the active
share taken in every part of the country by its
German citizens, and perhaps some more diligent
student may yet complete the picture by an ex-
haustive study of the subject. Imperfect as it is,
with all its omissions and shortcomings, it will, how-
ever, serve to show that the Germans did their share
in the war for the Union, alike in numbers, in
courage, in endurance, in zeal, in all the qualities
that make the good soldier and the good citizen.
They may fairly point with pride to the record of
their achievements and claim for them the reward
of duty well done. Both those who brought with
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
them the training, skill, and experience acquired in
Germany, and those who had as part of their inher-
itance their national qualities, deserve to be re-
membered ; this will have been successfully done
if their names be for even a little while rescued from
forgetfulness and oblivion.
There were, of course, on the surface, many Ger-
mans who rose early to a dangerous eminence, and
some ended their career with anything but credit to
themselves or their countrymen, but these were soon
thinned out by the actual experiences of real war.
As they disappeared, their places were taken by
men of merit, and the German soldier earned the
rank which his own achievements had gained for
him. It was in the ranks, and as non-commissioned
officers, that their steadiness, courage, discipline, en-
durance, and other manly virtues were especially
marked. Courage is not such a rare virtue, but the
capacity to be a good soldier in the long and weary
months of inaction, in the depression incidental to
defeat, in the license that follows victory, in the try-
ing hours of imprisonment and sickness, this was
the marked characteristic of the German soldier,
and it shone out in those regiments and companies
in which the mass was made up of impetuous and
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
undisciplined Americans, unaccustomed to obedience
and self-sacrifice. Here and there a German was
found who steadied the others by his example, some-
times without a word, occasionally by a little en-
couragement, always by his manly and soldierly
qualities. The literature of the war is largely made
up of the heroic achievements of those who gained
promotion and distinction, but there is also found in
regimental histories and in the dry annals of State
records, the occasional mention of some special gal-
lantry of the enlisted man. The story of his part of
the hardships and the successes of the war remains
to be told, cannot, perhaps, in view of the vast
number of soldiers, ever be fully told, but wher-
ever the German soldier served, there he made his
mark by characteristic virtues, the distinguishing
traits of his nationality, in both new and old country.
The Hon. Andrew D. White, lately President of
Cornell University, and formerly United States Min-
ister to Germany, gave an admirable summary of
the intellectual debt of the United States to Ger-
many in his address, delivered October 4, 1884, at
the centennial celebration of the German Society of
New York. The title is the key to the note he
strikes. It is entitled " Some Practical Influences
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
of German Thought upon the United States," and it
is full of suggestive ideas and profound thoughts.
He refers to the Revolution, when "the organizing
power of Steuben, the devotion of Kalb, and the
rude courage of Herckheimer were precious in es-
tablishing the liberties of the country ;" to the recog-
nition of the infant Republic by Frederic the Great,
first of all European rulers; and to the "earnestness
of German-American thinkers, so long as the strug-
gle was carried on with the pen, and the bravery of
German-American soldiers when it was carried on
by the sword." He pays fitting tribute to the words
and deeds of sympathy that came from Germany
alone in the fearful darkness and distress of the civil
war, when " German scholars and thinkers, men like
Theodore Mommsen and his compeers, proclaimed
their detestation of slavery and their hope for the
American Union." In another place he shows the
reflex effect of the great work done by a German-
American as orator, soldier, and statesman, when,
speaking of Carl Schurz as " first of all the recent
American thinkers," he tells us that Bismarck said
to him, "As a German I am proud of the success
of Carl Schurz." He closes in an earnest hope that
"the healthful elements of German thought will aid
I 5 6
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
powerfully in evolving a future for this land purer
in its politics, nobler in its conception of life, more
beautiful in the bloom of art, more precious in the
fruitage of character." What the Germans have al-
ready done in and for this country is the best as-
surance that this fervent prayer will be granted.
To show their share as soldiers in the wars of the
United States, is at least a justification of the right
and duty cast upon them to see that so far as in
them lies, neither from within nor without shall
any injury befall the Republic.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
GERMAN OFFICERS OF THE REVOLUTIONARY ARMY.
DeKalb, John, maj.-gen., 1777.
Steuben, F. W. A., maj.-gen., 1778.
De Woedtke, Frederick William, brig.-gen., 1776.
Muhlenberg, T. P. G., brig.-gen., 1777.
Weedon, George, brig.-gen., 1777.
Weisenfels, F., lieut.-col. com. 4th N. Y., 1779.
Ziegler, D., capt. istPenna., 1778.
Weltener, Ludwick, lieut.-col., 1776.
Burchart, D., maj., 1777.
Bunner, J., capt., 1776.
Boyer, P., capt., 1777.
Boetzel, Charles, capt., 1777.
Rice, William, capt., 1778.
Hubley, Bernard, capt., 1778.
Myers, Chr., capt., 1778.
Boyer, Mich., capt., 1778.
Schrauder, Ph., capt., lieut., 1778.
Weidman, John, lieut., 1777.
Sugart, Martin, lieut., 1777.
Gremeth, Jacob, lieut., 1778.
Cramer, Jacob, lieut., 1778.
Swartz, Godfrey, lieut., 1778.
Young, Marcus, lieut., 1778.
Morgan, David, lieut., 1778.
I 5 8
Weidman, John, ens., 1777.
Shrupp, Henry, ens., 1777.
Desenderfer, David, ens., 1778.
Spech, Henry, ens., 1778.
Raboldt, Jacob, ens., 1778.
Glickner, Ch., ens., 1778.
Prue, William, ens., 1778.
Hehn, Henry, ens., 1779.
Schott, John Paul, capt., 1776.
Selim, Anthony, capt., 1776.
Nicola, Lewis, col., 1777.
Woelpper, David, capt., 1778.
MARECHAUSEE LIGHT DRAGOONS.
Van Heer, Barthol., capt., 1778.
Manaeke, Christ., lieut., 1778.
Maitinger, Jac., lieut., 1778.
Struebing, Phil., lieut., 1778.
ARMAND'S LEGION, CAVALRY.
Markle, Chas., capt., 1778.
Schaffner, George, capt., 1778.
Seibert, Henry, lieut., 1778.
Schwartz, Godfried, lieut., 1778.
Segern, Fred., lieut., 1778.
Riedel, Henry, ens., 1778.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Bauman, Sebastian, maj.-com't. Art., 1778.
Kalteisen, Michael, capt. Art., 1794.
Muhlenburg, Henry, lieut. Art., 1794.
Ziegler, David, capt. 1st Inf., 1784.
Strubing, Philip (Van Heer's Corps), capt., bv't., 1784.
The following officers of the regular army were
Adam, Emil, Alton Jagers, 1861; capt. gth 111., 1861 ; major 114th
111., 1865; capt. 5th U. S. Cav., 1870.
Adolphus, Philip, Prussia; surgeon, 1861-65; Md.
Axt, Godfrey H. T., Germany; surgeon 2Oth N. Y. Vols.; U. S. A.,
Balder, Christian, enl. U. S. A. May 12, 1857; 1st lieut. 25th Inf.,
Bendire, Charles, enl. U. S. A., 1854; capt. 1st Cav., 1873; retired
Bentzoni, Charles, enl. U. S. A., 1857; col. 56th U. S. Col. Troops,
1865; capt. 25th Inf., 1866.
Clous, John W., enl. U. S. A , 1857 ; capt. 24th Inf., 1867.
Conrad, Joseph, capt. 3d Mo., 1861; col. I5th Mo., 1862; capt. nth
Inf., 1869; retired as colonel, 1882.
Crone, L. E., 22d Mass., 1861 ; capt. 42d Inf., 1866; retired 1870.
Decker, Th., 4th Art., 1875 > 2d lieut - 2 4 th Inf -> l8 79-
De Gress, Jacob C., capt. 6th Mo. Cav. ; capt. gth U. S. Cav., 1867;
Ebstein, F. H. E., enl. U. S. A., 1864; capt. 2ist Inf., 1885.
Eggenmeyer, A., ist lieut. I2th Inf.; killed June I, 1864.
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Falck, William, enl. 1858; capt. 2d Inf., 1866; retired 1883.
Freudenberg, C. G., capt. 52d N. Y., 1861 ; capt. I4th Inf., 1869; re-
tired as lieut.-col., 1877.
Fuger, F., enl. 4th Art., 1856 ; 1st lieut., 1865.
Gaebel, F., 1st lieut. 45th Inf., 1866.
Gardener, Corn., 2d lieut. igth Inf., 1879.
Gerlach, William, enl. 1856; 1st lieut. 3d Inf., 1879.
Goldman, H. J., 2d lieut. 5th Cav., 1877.
Green, John, enl. July I, 1846; maj. 1st Cav., 1868; lieut.-col. 2d
Grossman, F. E., 2d lieut. 7th Inf., 1863; capt. I7th Inf., 1871.
Gunther, S., enl. 1st Cav., 1855; capt. 4th Cav., 1870; retired 1884.
Heger, A., surgeon U. S. A., 1856-67.
von Hermann, C. J., maj. A. A. D. C; capt. 4th Inf., 1866.
Hesselberger, G. A., 2d lieut., 1866; 1st lieut. 3d Inf., 1871.
Hoelcke, William, German army, 1849-51 ; British Legion in Cri-
mea; 1st lieut. Mo. Vols. ; 1st lieut. 3gth U. S., 1866-70.
Hoffman, Ernest F., Royal Engineers, Berlin ; lieut. Prussian army,
1844-56; capt. and maj. Italian army; 2d lieut. 35th Inf., 1867.
Hoppy, E., enl. 2d Art., 1854; 1st lieut. gth Inf., 1871; retired.
Ilges, Guido, I4th Inf., 1861 ; lieut.-col. gth Inf., 1871.
Johnson, Lewis, loth Ind., 1861 ; bvt. brig.-gen. U. S. Vols., 1865;
capt. 24th Inf., 1869.
Kautz, A. V., ist Ohio, 1846; 2d lieut. 4th Inf., 1852; capt. 6th Cav.,
1861 ; col. 2d Ohio Cav., 1862; brig.-gen. Vols., 1864; bvt. maj.-
gen., 1865; col. 8th Inf., 1874.
Keller, J. W., 6th Mass., 1861; 1st lieut. 42d Inf., 1866; capt. re-
tired list, 1870.
Keye, F., 2d lieut. lOth Inf., 1869.
Koerper, E. A., surgeon 75th Pa., U. S. A., 1867.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. r 6 r
Kopp, William, ist lieut. Washington Territory Vols., 1862; ist lieut.
I3th Inf., 1867.
Kramer, A., 2d Dragoons, 1857; capt. 1 5th Penna. Cav., 1862; capt.
6th Cav., 1874.
Kroutinger, A. W., enl. 2d Inf., 1848; capt. 2d Inf., 1864; retired 1879.
Liedtke, F. W., nth Penna., 1861 ; 2d lieut. 43d Inf., 1866; ist Inf.,
Lockwood, T. A., 2d lieut. I7th Inf., 1880.
von Luettwitz, A. H., 54th N. Y., 1862; ist lieut. 3d Cav., 1874;
Luhn, G. L., enl. 1853; capt. 4th Inf., 1875.
Magnitzky, G., 2Oth Mass., 1861 ; capt., 1864; 2d lieut. I4th Inf.,
1870; retired 1871.
Mahnken, John H., ist N. Y. Cav. ; ist lieut. 8th U. S. Cav., 1877.
Meinhold, Charles, 3d Cav., 1862; capt. 3d Cav., 1866; died 1877.
Merkle, Charles F., ist lieut. 4th Art., 1862.
Meyer, Martin, capt. I2th Inf., 1861.
Meyers, Edward, 2d lieut. 1st Cav., 1862; 7th Cav., 1866.
Michaelis, O. E., 23d N. Y. ; capt. Ordnance, 1874.
von Michalowsky, T. B., 2d lieut. 1st Art., 1861 ; 1st lieut., 1863.
Motz, John, ist lieut. nth Inf., 1847.
Orlemann, L. H., lO3d, and capt. ligth N. Y. ; 1st lieut. loth Cav.,
1867; retired 1879.
Patzki, J. H., surgeon I5th N. Y. ; capt. asst. surg. U. S. A., 1869.
Paulus, Jacob, 5th and 5oth Penna.; 2d lieut. l8th U. S. Inf.; capt.
25th Inf., 1873.
Phisterer, F., 2d lieut. i8th Inf., 1861; capt. 36th Inf. and 7th Inf.,
Rawolle, W. C, 2d lieut. 2d N. Y. Art., 1861 ; 2d lieut. 2d Cav.,
1868; adjt., 1878; capt., 1880.
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Reichmann, Carl, enl. 1881 ; 2d lieut. 24th Inf., 1884.
Renaldo, H. O., 2d lieut. gth Inf., 1861 ; ist lieut., 1863.
Rendlebrock, J., enl. 1851 ; 2d lieut. 4th Cav., 1862; capt., 1867; re-
Ritzius, H. P., 5th JJ. Y., 1861; maj. 2d N. Y., 1864; ist lieut.
25th Inf., 1875.
Roemer, Paul, enl. 5th Art., 1858; ist lieut., 1866.
Ruhlen, George, ist lieut. I7th Inf., 1876.
Quentin, J. E., capt. iO3d N. Y. ; ist lieut. I4th Inf., 1867.
Sachs, H., 2d lieut. 3d Cav., 1861.
Schaurte, F. W., 2d lieut. 2d Cav., 1862; capt., 1866.
von Schirach, F. C., 54th N. Y., 1861 ; ist lieut. 43d Inf., 1866; re-
von Schrader, Alexander, 2d lieut. llth Inf., 1866; maj. 3gth Inf.,
1866; died 1867.
Schreyer, George, 2d lieut. 6th Cav., 1866.
Schultze, Thilo, I2th Mo., 18.65; 2d lieut. I4th Inf., 1865.
Schwann, Theo., enl. 1857; capt. nth Inf., 1866.
Sellmer, Charles, enl. 1854; capt. nth Me., 1862; ist lieut. 3d Art.,
Simon, Charles, 2d lieut. 5th Art., 1862; ist lieut., 1866.
Smith, John E., col. 45th 111.; col. 27th Inf., 1866; retired 1881.
Smith, Thos., enl. 1867; ist lieut. I5th Inf., 1877.
Steinmetz, William R., capt. and asst. surg., 1871.
Stelyes, Claus, 2d lieut. 4th Art., 1863.
Sternberg, Sig., 2d lieut. 27th Inf. ; killed 1867.
Stiebner, Eugene ; army, ist Art. Fort Sumter, 1861 ; 1st New York
Art., 1862; 3d Penna., 1863; i6th N. Y., 1864; 2d lieut. I5th
Inf., 1865; ist lieut. 33d Inf.
Stommel, Julius, 4ist N. Y. ; 2d lieut. 43d Inf., 1866; 1st lieut., 1869.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Syberg, Arnold, capt. nth Inf., 1847.
Thibaut, F. W., zd lieut. 7th N. Y., 1861 ; ist lieut. 6th Inf., 1868.
Thies, F., enl. 1866; 2d lieut. 3d Inf., 1873.
Urban, Gustavus, army; 2d lieut. 5th Cav. ; capt., 1866.
Valois, Gustavus, capt. 4th Md., 1862; capt. 9th Cav., 1884.
Veitenheimer, Carl, 74th Penna. ; 2d lieut. 4th Inf. ; ist lieut, 1866.
Vermann, Otto, 2d lieut. I3th Inf., 1866.
Wagner, Henry, enl. 1856; 2d lieut. nth Inf., 1863; capt. ist Cav.,
Walbach, John de B., ist lieut. Cav., 1799; col. 4th Art., 1842; died,
Warrens, C. N., ist lieut. 4th Mo., 1861; capt. I4th Inf., 1883.
Wedemeyer, W. G., enl. 1861 ; capt. i6th Inf., 1865.
Wenckebach, E. F., 2d lieut. I3th Inf., 1865 ; capt 22d Inf., 1867.
Wesendorff, Max, ist lieut. Washington Territory Vols., 1862 ; 2d
lieut. 24th Inf., 1867; capt. ist Cav., 1880.
Wilhelmi, Louis, 2d lieut. ist Inf., 1865 ; 1st lieut., 1880.
The following, from a " List of Field Officers ot
U. S. Volunteers," are Germans :
Abell, Caspar K., maj..72d N. Y.
Abell, Charles C., maj. 6th N. Y. and loth N. Y. Art.
Almstedt, Henry, col. 1st Mo. ; 2d Mo. Lt. Art.
Alstrom, John V., maj. 3d N. J. Cav.
Ammen, Jacob, col. I2th Ohio.
von Amsberg, George, col. 45th N. Y.
Anselm, Albert, lieut. -col. 3d Mo.
Am, F., maj. 3ist Ind.
Balling, O. H. P., maj. 145111 N. Y.
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Banghof, C M maj. 1st Mo. Cav.
von Baumbach, C., maj. 24th Wis.
Bausenwein, V., col. 58th Ohio.
Becht, John C., maj. 5th Minn.
Beck, Arnold, lieut.-col. 2d Mo.
Beck, Christian, lieut.-col. gth Ind. Cav.
Beck, Fred, maj. loSth Ohio.
Beck, William, maj. 27th Mo.
Becker, Adolph, lieut.-col. 46th N. Y.
Becker, Gottfried, lieut.-col. 28th Ohio.
Becker, Philip, lieut.-col. 5th Penna. Cav.
Behlendorff, F., maj. ijth 111.
Bendix, John E., col. 7th N. Y.
Bierbower, F., maj. 4Oth Ky.
Blenker, L., col. 8th N. Y.
von Blessing, L., lieut.-col. 37th Ohio.
von Boernstein, Shaeffer, col. 5th Iowa Cav.
von Borgersock, R., col 5th Minn.
Botchfur, Hugo, maj. ist Ark. Cav.
Bramlich, Charles, maj. 2d Ark. Inf.
Brutsche, John D., lieut.-col. 8th Mo. Cav.
Burger, Louis, col. 5th N. Y.
Degenfeld, Christian, col. 26th Ohio.
Deitzler, George W., col. 1st Kansas.
Diechman, Julius, maj. I5th N. Y. Heavy Art.
Dotze, Aug., lieut.-col. 8th Ohio Cav.
Duysing, Emil, lieut.-col. 4ist N. Y.
von Egloffstein, F. W., col. icvjd N. Y.
Ehrler, Francis, lieut.-col. 2d Mo.
von Einsidel, D., lieut.-col. 4ist N. Y.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 165
Erdelmeyer, F., lieut.-col. 320! Ind.
Ernenwein, C., lieut.-col. 2ist Penna.
Faltz, Ernst M., lieut.-col. 8th Md.
von Forstner, S., maj. 3d N. J. Cav.
Gaebel, F. A. H., maj. ;th N. Y.
Gellman, F., lieut.-col. 58* N. Y.
von Gerber, G., lieut.-col. 6th Ind.
Glapcke, Herman, maj. 22d Conn.
Goelzer, Aug., lieut.-col. 6oth Ind.
Gruesel, Nich., col. 7th 111.
von Hammerstein, H., col. 78th N. Y.
Happel, Christian, lieut.-col. loth Mo.
von Hartung, Adolph, col. 74th Penna.
Hassendeubel, F., col. 3d Mo.
Heinrichs, Gust., lieut.-col. 4th Mo. Cav.
Heintz, R., maj. 28th Ohio.
Heintzleman, M. T., lieut.-col. I72d Penna.
von Helmrich, G., lieut.-col. 5th Mo. Cav.
Hequembourg, A. G., lieut.-col. 4Oth Mo.
Hequembourg, W. A., maj. 3d Mo.
Hundhausen, Julius, lieut.-col. 4th Mo.
Hundhausen, Robert, col. 4th Mo.
Jacobsen, Aug., lieut.-col. 27th Mo.
Jaensch, F., maj. 3ist Mo.
Jussen, Edm., lieut.-col. 23d Wis.
Kaercher, Jac., lieut.-col. I2th Mo.
Kahler, F. M., maj. 62d Ohio.
Kammerling, Gus., col. gth Ohio.
von Kielmansegge, E., col. 4th Mo. Cav.; 1st Florida Cav.
Knobellsdorff, Charles, col. 44th 111.
THE GERMAN SOLDIER IN THE
Knoderer, Charles, col. i67th Penna.
von Koerber, V. E., maj. 1st Md. Cav.
Koltes, John A., col. 73d Penna.
Kozlay, E. A., col. 54th N. Y.
Krekel, Arnold, maj. Mo. Batt'y.
Kreutzer, William, lieut.-col. gSth N. Y.
Krez, Cornel., col. 27th Wis.
Kummell, A. H., lieut.-col. I3th Wis.
von Kusserow, C., lieut.-col. 2d U. S. Vet. Vols.
Laiboldt, Bernard, col. 2d Mo.
Landgraeber, Clemens, maj. ad Mo. Lt. Art.
Ledergerber, F. T., maj. I2th Mo.
Leppien, George F., lieut.-col. 1st Me. Art.
Mahler, F., col 75th Penna.
von Matzdorff, A., lieut.-col. 75th Penna.
Mehler, Adolph, lieut.-col. gSih Penna.
Metternich, G., lieut.-col. 46th N. Y.
Minden, von Henning, maj. Hatch's Batt'n. Mirin. Cav.
von Mitzel, Alex., lieut.-col. 74th Penna.
Moor, Aug., col. 28th Ohio.
Mueller, Charles, lieut.-col. li>7th Ohio.
Osterhaus, P. J., col. I2th Mo.
Perczel, N., col. loth Iowa.
Porchner, F., col. 47th Ohio.
Possegger, F., maj. 1st N. Y. Cav.
Reichard, F. H., maj. i88th Penna.
Reichard, George N., lieut.-col. I43d Penna.
Rolshausen, F., maj. 82d 111.
Rosa, Rudolph, col. 46th N. Y.
Rosengarten, Adolph G., maj. I5th Penna. (Anderson) Cav.
WARS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Salm-Salm, Prince, col. 8th N. Y.
von Schach, G. W., col. 7th N. Y.
Schadt, Otto, lieut.-col. I2th Mo.
Schaeffer, F., col. 2d Mo.
von Schickfus, F., lieut.-col. 1st N. Y. Cav.
von Schilling, F., maj. 3d Penna. Art.
Schimmelfennig, A., col. 74th Penna.
Schirmer, L., col. 1 5th N. Y.
Schlittner, Nich., col. 4th Mo.
von Schluembach, Alex., maj. 2gth N. Y.
Schnepf, E., lieut.-col. 2oth N. Y.
Schoeffel, F. A., lieut.-col. I3th N. Y.
von Schrader, Alex., lieut.-col. 74th Ohio.
Schumacher, F., maj. 2ist Wis.
Segebarth, H., maj. 3d Penna. Art.
Seidel, C. B., col. 3d Ohio Cav.
Seidel, G. A., maj. 7th N. Y.
Seidlitz, Hugo, maj. 27th Penna.
Soest, Clemens, col. 2Qth N. Y.
Sondersdorff, C., lieut.-col. gth Ohio.
Stahel, Julius, col. 8th N. Y.
von Steinhausen, A., lieut.-col. 68th N. Y.
von Steinwehr, A., col. 2gth N. Y.
Tafel, Gust., lieut.-col. io6th Ohio.
Tassin, A. G., col. 35th Ind.
Thielemann, Christian, col. i6th 111. Cav.
Thielemann, Milo, maj. l6th 111. Cav.
Thoman, Max, lieut.-col. 59th N. Y.
Tiedemann, D. F., lieut.-col. noth U. S. Colored.
von Trebra, H., col. 32d Ind.
THE GERMAN SOLDIER.
von Vegesach, E., col. 2Oth N. Y.
Veitenheimer, Carl, lieut.-col. 74th Penna.
Wagner, Louis, col. 88th Penna.
Wangelin, Hugo, col. I2th Mo.
Weber, Max, col. 2Oth N. Y.
von Wedell, Carl, raaj. 68th N. Y.
Willich, A., col. 32d Ind.
Zakrzenski, H., lieut.-col. 2d Mo.
Adenbousch, ad Va., 85.
Almstedt, ist Mo. Cav., 141.
Alstrom, 3d N. J., 146.
Amsberg, von, 45th N. Y., 115.
Ammen, 24th O., 62.
Annecke, 23d, 34th Wis., 151.
Armlinsen, von, N. O. Turner
Arndt, 1st N. Y. Art., 126.
Bachman, W. K., S. C., 83.
Bachman's Battery, Washington
Art., C. S. A., 85.
Bahncke, N. O. Turner Guards,
8 5 .
Ballier, gSth Pa., 106.
Baltzel, C., 23.
Bauman, Col., U. S. A., 25, 38.
Baumer, ist Neb., 145.
Bausenwein, 58th Ohio, 147.
Becht, J. C., 5th Minn., 135.
Bendix, Col., 7th N. Y., 114.
Biebel, 6th Conn., 133.
Bierbower, 4Oth Ky., 134.
Bierer, E., 17 1st Pa., 107.
Blandowsky, 3d Mo., 138.
Blankenburg, H., 77.
Blenker, 93, 123.
Blessing, von, L., 37th Ohio, 148.
Boernstein, 2d Mo., 137.
Bohlander, H5th Ohio, 147.
Bohlen, H., 75th Pa., no.
Boone, Daniel, 35.
Borcke, von, Heros, C. S. A., 76.
Brickel, ist N. Y. Lt. Art., 125.
Brueckner, 73d Pa., III.
Buggenhagen, von, 7th N.Y.,i2i.
Banner, R., 23d Continental, 50.
Burckhart, D., 23.
Burger, 5th N. Y. S. M., 115.
Burger, N. O. Steuben Guards, 85,
Burstenbinder, 67th Ohio, 147.
Bushbeck, A., 27th Pa., 109.
Closen, von, 42.
Conrad, A., 77, 44.
Cordes, T., S. C., 81.
Cornehlsen, N. C., 79.
Cramer, J., 23.
C. S. A., 85.
Custer, Gen. George, 68.
Degenfeld, C., 26th Ohio, 149.
Dettweiler, H., 6th Ky., 150.
Deutsch, von, 4th Mo. Cav., 152.
Dieterich, ist N.Y. Lt. Art., 125.
Dilger, Ohio, 147.
Doster, 4th Pa. Cav., 108.
Dotze, 8th Ohio Cav., 148.
Dreer, F. J., 25.
Elking, von, 19.
Engelmann, 43d 111., 127.
Ermentrout, Daniel, 10.
Forstner, von, 3d N. J. Cav., 146.
Frank, 52d N. Y., 115.
Freudenberg, 52d N. Y., 117.
Frey, 24th III., 131.
Fry, Gen. J. B., 88.
Furst, ist W. Va. Art., 150.
Gardiner, J. de B. W., U. S. A.,
Gaudain, von, A., 132.
Gerber, J., 24th Ind., 134.
Gilsa, von, 4ist N. Y., 115, 124.
Glichner, Ch., 23.
Gould, Dr. B. A., 89.
Greble, Lieut. J. T., 2d U. S. Art.,
Greble, Lieut. E. S., 2d U. S. Art.,
Green, G. W., 19.
Gremeth, J., 23.
Gries, lO4th Pa., 105.
Griesinger, T., 87.
Gumbart, 111. Batt., 129.
Haake, von, Count, 520! N. Y.,
Haas, de, J. P., 41, 50.
Haas, de, W., 43.
Hagner, Gen., 62.
Hambright, Gen. H. A., 73.
Harms, Capt. H., S. C., 81.
Hartmann, J. A., 48.
Hartranft, Gen. J. F., 5ist Pa.,
Hassendeubel, Col., I7th Mo.,
Haupt, Gen. H., 62.
Hecker, F., 82d 111., 129.
Heer, van B., 40.
Heileman, J. F., 61.
Heine, W., iO3d N. Y., 71.
Heintzelman, Gen. S. P., 62.
Helmrichjvon, 4th Mo. Cav., 141.
Hendricks, 1st N. Y. Cav., 122.
Hendricks, W., 24.
Herkimer, Gen., 48.
Hiester, 47, 50.
Hofmann, Gen. J. W., $6th Pa.,
Hoffman, Ohio Batt., 147.
Hubley, B , 23.
Illinois, 99, 127.
Jackson, William, 3d Mo., 138.
Jacobi, gth Wis., 151.
Jenkins, H. M. , 40.
Kalb de, Gen., 19, 25.
Kalteisen, M., S. C. Cont'l Art.,
Kapff, 7th N. Y., 114.
Kapp, F., 15.
Karge, Gen. J., 1st N. J. Cav., 146.
Kautz, A. V., 8th U. S. Inf., 67.
Kielmansegge, von, 4th Mo. Cav.,
Klein, 6th Conn., 133.
Kleisser, 3Oth N. Y., 126.
Klingelhoffer, C. S. A., Ark., 55.
Kloch, Col. J., N. Y. Cont'l Reg.,
Knierim, ist N. Y. Art., 125.
Knobelsdorff, von, 44th 111., 127.
Knoderer, i68th Pa., 106.
Koerber, von, ist Mo., 134.
Kohler, g8th Pa., 105.
Koltes, 73d Pa., in.
Korner, G., 35, 128.
Kramer, 3d N. J. Cav., 146.
Krez, Col., 27th Wis., 151.
Kusserow, von, 32d N. Y. Batt.,
Lange, A., Inda., 134.
Langenheim, William, 72.
Lederer, John, 79.
Lehmann, iO3d Pa., 107.
Leppien, ist Me. Art., 121.
Lieber, F., 63.
Limberg, io8th Ohio, 147.
Lowell, E. J., 19.
Loyal Legion, 117.
Lutterloh, 35, 37.
Lutz, J. B., 134.
Markgraf, Ohio Art., 147.
Matthes, la., 132.
Melchers, C. S. A., 80.
Meyer, io7th Ohio, 147.
Mindel, G., 33d N. J., 145.
Minden, von, Henning, Minn.
Missouri, 95, 136.
Moegling, nth Conn., 133.
Moltke, von, ist N. Y. Cav.,
Moor, Aug., 28th Ohio, 147, 148.
Mordecai, Maj., U. S. A., 67.
Mordecai, Col., U. S. A., 68.
Morgan, D., 23.
Muehleck, 73d Pa., in.
Muhlenberg, 16, 34, 51, 62.
Nast, Thomas, 119.
Nauman, Col. George, U. S. A.,
New Jersey, 145.
New York, 48, 98, 114.
Nohrden, C. S. A., 81.
North Carolina, 79.
Ohio, 99, 147.
Off, H., 35th Wis., 151.
Osband, 111. Art., 129.
Osterhaus, I2th Mo., 139.
Parkman, F., 13.
Passegger, 1st N. Y. Cav., 122.
Pennsylvania, 8, 10, 13, 100.
Pennypacker, Gen., 97th Pa., 103.
Perczel, A., loth Iowa, 132.
Pionier, 34, 135,
Porschner, 47th Ohio, 147.
Post, C. F., 14.
Quitman, Gen. J. A., 53.
Radowitz, von, 121.
Raith, Julius, 43d 111., 127.
Riedesel, 19, 49.
Rosengarten, A. G., 1 5th Pa.
Runge, N. C., 79.
Salm-Salm, Princess, 120.
Salm-Salm, 8th N. Y., 121.
Salomon, F., gth Wis. ; C. E., 5th
Mo.; E. S., 82d 111., 150, 151.
Sanitary Commission, 89.
Schaefer, de Boernstein, 5th la.
Schach, von, 7th N. Y., 114.
Schall, 5 1st Pa., 105.
Scheppert, 33 .
Scherer, I2ist Pa., 102.
Schickfuss, von, 1st N. Y. Cav.,
Schleicher, Gust., 72, 86.
Schott, J. P., 40.
Schott, 73d Pa., III.
Schirmer, N. Y. Batt., 121.
Schroder, von, 74th Ohio, 3gth
U. S. A., 73.
Schulz, S. C. Art., 86.
Schurz, istN. Y. Cav., 47, 121.
Schiitts, 4th Mo. Vols., 137.
Schwarz, 2d 111. Art., 129.
Schwarzwalder, 5th N. Y. S. M.,
Seidensticker, 39, 49,
Siebath, 3d N. J. Cav., 146.
Sieber, 37th Ohio, 147.
Sigel, F., 3d Mo., 142.
Sigwald, C. B., S. C., 81.
South Carolina, 79.
Steinwehr von, 2gih N. Y., 123.
Steuben, Gen., 19, 20, 31, 37.
Steuben, Baron, von, 52d N. Y.,
Stolleman, 111. Art., 129.
Sytez, George, 38.
Tafel, io6th Ohio, 147.
Thielemann, 111. Cav., 129.
Tiedeman, 75th Pa., 113.
Trebra, von, 32d Ind., 121.
Vezin, 5th Pa., I5th Pa., 4th Mo.
Voegelin, 1st N. Y. Art., 125.
Vollers, N. C., 79.
Wagener, J. A., S. C. Vols., 72,
Wagner, Gen. L , 88th Pa., 113.
Walbach, 4th U. S. Art., 55.
Wangelin, H., I2th Mo., 128.
Waring, 4th Mo. Cav., 94, 141.
Weber, M., 2Oth N. Y., 115.
Weedon, Gen., 45.
Weiser, Conrad, 10, 15.
Weissenfels, 36, 38.
Weitzel, Gen. G., 72.
Wetzel, M., 38.
Wetzel, L., 43.
White, A. D., 154
Willich, Gen., 1st German, Ohio;
1st German, Ind. ; 32d Ind.,
Wisconsin, 99, 150.
Woedtke, von, 34.
Woelpper, Pa. German. Reg.,
Zahm, 3d Ohio Cav., 147.
Zedwitz, von, 49,
Ziegler, Pa. Continental Reg.,
Zinn, i3Oth Pa., 105.
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA